Sunday, February 15, 2009

POVERTY IN TANZANIA

INTRODUCTION
This paper is going discuss about poverty in Tanzania and how do Tanzanians and the Government of Tanzania struggle to eradicate poverty.

Poverty is ability to attain a minimum standard of living Elements of poverty is such as poor infrastructure, un/employment, hunger. lack of balance diet. Diseases, life expectancy. Dependant economy, poor social services (water, schools an hospital) and poor health (disturbed by different diseases).

Causes of poverty
The causes of poverty are grouped into two parts, those which are internally rooted and those which are externally rooted. Burkely Stan (1993) mentioned some internal causes of poverty which are such as:-

Physical limitations-Many areas subject to long periods of drought; rain, when it comes tend to come all at once causing flooding and water loggings; soil are thin and very delicate and other natural disasters.

Dependency of third world countries – The third world countries are dependant of the developed countries for capital, technology and markets.
The rich countries set the interest rates, the terms of trade, the tariffs, and important barriers and generally, through their economic power, drain off the surpluses produce in the poor countries.

Lack of modern look – Poor people are said to resist change because they are ignorant, superstitious, fatalistic and traditional. They have a limited world view and are unable to see the advantage of modernization. They lack innovativeness and are unable to see the advantage of “investing to day fro a better tomorrow”. They have limited aspirations an are unable to defer today’s gratification to the future.

Lack of good leader – committed that encourage innovation with creating ideas. A leader that inspire others to share in common vision. Sets a good example and support others.

Poor Education – In family planning, lack o skills, land is not fully utilized, lack of technology.

Others reasons are such as lack of capital, difficult for people to self employed, poor essential services for example health and education, low economic productivity, poor balance diet causing malnutrition, lack of investment and lack of good policy. People also in some tribes are lazy; the are not working hard to remove poverty.

The sources which are externally caused, Walter (year) talked about slave trade; colonialism that African countries were colonized by different colons. For example Tanzania was under the Germany and British. They used the people to produce for the raw materials which they sent back to their countries and left Africa at the point of start. It also caused unequal distribution of development sources such as industries; they also took raw material for their industries.

Neocolonialism as a cause of poverty; IMF and WORLD BANK causes (i) Redundancy, they suggested to reduce number of workers; law payment – they set a limit on how to pay workers, multiparty, and privatize, the developed countries encourages internal war by selling and giving instrument for war.

The establishment of multiparty democracy is externally oriented, had no internal roots and came hand with Structure Adjustment Programmer initiated by World Bank and IMF.

Loans and aids with pressure conditions and big interest from the World Bank and IMF. “We have loans with big interest we cant pay this these loans in the expenses our child”. This is true because poor countries can not pa such loans with such big interest, when they fail to pay their debts increases.(Nyerere;)

Theoretical literature review.
The theory of poverty can be derived from ideas of the classical school, which focused on the laws that govern the distribution of factors incomes, and were later incorporated into the surplus model. According to this approach, development is defines in terms of the growth of the modern sector, which expand at the expense in inequality and (especially relative) poverty in the initial stages of development and a reduction in inequality and poverty at a later stage (Lewis, 1954 and Fei and Raws, 1964.

The neoclassical school which became dominance in the second half of the nineteenth century postulates that in a perfect market, prices of factors and goods are simultaneously determined competitively and depending on their scarcity and productivity. In spite the limitation arising from assumption of perfect competition a theory can be derived from such approach, as household incomes will be determined by the factor incomes receives by the households; that is the earnings from house hold labor and property.

Concept of Poverty.
A practical and commonly used definition of absolute poverty is the inability to attain a specific (minimum) standard of living (World Bank 1990). The definition focuses on the absolute economic well-being of the poor, in isolation from the welfare distribution of the entire society. It implies knowledge of the minimum standard of living, commonly referred to as the poverty live

The estimated total population of Africa in 1995 was 580m of these.
291m people had average income of below one dollar per day in 1998.
124m o those up to age 39yrs were at risk of dying before 40.
43m children were stinted as result of malnutrition in 1995.
205m were estimated to be without access to heal services in 1990 – 95.
249m were without safe drinking water in 1990 – 95.
More than 2m infants die animally before reading their first birthday.
139 million youth and adults were illiterate in 1995.

World Bank categorized poverty in 3 categories.
The destitute – many of whom are dependents such as elderly (particularly woman whose assets are taken when they become widowed) and disabled, count amongst the chronically poor.
Another group are being vulnerable to spell o poverty on account of either personally specific shocks such as illness or theft or more general shocks such as conflict, drought or economic crisis.

POLICE REVIEW
Soon after independence in 1961, Tanzania declared war against three closely related evils – poverty, ignorance and disease. Extensive programmes related to poverty eradication were initiated which included, inter alia, programmes to expand education, health services and water supply as well as improvement of physical infrastructure and development of agriculture and the economy as a whole. People have always been at the centre of the governments efforts in pursuit of poverty eradication. In spite of some implementation shortcoming, considerable achievements were made in improving human welfare in the first twenty years of independence.

In Tanzania Poverty can be conceived as a state of deprivation prohibitive of decent human life. This is caused by lack of recourses and capabilities to a acquire basic human needs as seen in many, but often mutually reinforcing parameters which include malnutrition, ignorance, prevalence of diseases, squalid surroundings, high infant, child and maternal mortality, low life expectancy, low per capital income, poor quality housing, in adequate clothing, low technological utilization, environmental degradation, unemployment rural-urban migration and poor migration.

Extent of Poverty
There are many individual used to measure poverty and its manifestation. The indicators used here are those that reflect the realities of poverty in Tanzania.

Illiteracy
One of the signs of poverty in the country are those low level literacy and numeracy. The literacy level is now estimated to be 68% down from 90% achieved n the 1980s. This testifies to the worsening trend of poverty and to the reversal of gains made earlier in human development efforts. Among low income families the literacy rate is 59% which lower than the national average. Gross enrollment rate for primary school pupils 77.8% (1996), down from 90% in the 1980s.

Inadequate clean and safe water supply
Availability of clean and safe water supply and sanitation services is one of the basic indicators of human development. Water for the majority of Tanzania is not within easy reach. Only about 11% of households have water services at the door. About 38% percent have to walk up to 15 minutes in order to reach water sources; while about 27% of households spend up to 30 minutes to get to a source of water. Woman and girls children are the most adversely affected by lack of water because culturally and traditionally they have the role of fetching water.

Poor Health Services
Inadequate health services reflect the extent of poverty of the country. For example, according to health statistical Abstract (1997) the ration of population per health facility is 7,421; there is one hospital bed per 1000 people and one physician per 23,188 people, while about 30% of the people live more than 5 kilometers from the nearest health centre.

High Mortality Rate
According to the Health Statistical Abstract 1997, the average life expectancy of 77 year in developed countries and 62 years in other developing countries. The infant rate mortality rate (IMR) is 96 per 1,000 live birth compared to 7 in developed countries. The under-five mortality rate of per 1,000 and maternal mortality rate is 95 per 100,000 live birth. These mortality rates for Tanzania are clear expression of poverty.

Malnutrition
Many Tanzanian suffer from malnutrition particularly under nutrition. Also many are affected by micro nutrient deficiencies due to nutritional illiteracy especially as it relates to best use of fruits and vegetables and proper methods of planning cereal based diets. According to Tanzania Demographical Health Survey (1996), malnutrition among under-fives shows the prevalence of stunting to be 43.4% underweight 30.6% and wasting 7.2% Adult malnutrition especially maternal malnutrition is widespread. Indicative of maternal malnutrition is the high prevalence of low birth weight.

Environment Degradation
Environment degradation which is caused by over exploitation of land perpetuates poverty. Poverty has led to small holder farm house holds and pastoral groups to intensify exploitation of land with the aim to survive. This has led to widespread soil erosion. Furthermore, in the absence of alternative energy source, firewood remains the dominant sources of domestic fuel all over the country. Cutting trees for fuel wood has led to widespread deforestation and drought, hence increasing the danger of desertification.

Unemployment
High incidence of unemployment is among key distinguishing features of poverty. Largely because of poverty, the economy can not generate enough employment opportunities to meet the needs of the labour force. Poor living conditions of the rural areas serve centripetal force to push the youth to urban areas where most of them remain unemployed. The near 30% of youth unemployment reflects, in part, the ability of the economy to create sufficient employment opportunities for the growing population, but also the inability of the rural areas to create gainful employment opportunities and incentives to retain youth after graduation from primary education. Alongside this situation is the growing problem of street children who are a manifestation of worsening poverty.

Low Incomes
Another manifestation of poverty is low level of income. Estimates show that the poverty line for Tanzania is Tshs. 73,877 (1955) per annum. More than 50% of the population in Tanzania has incomes below the poverty line. Although the ecomonomy has been growing at an average animal rate of 4% since mid 1980s this rate of growth is insufficient to generate an income level considered adequate to meet basic needs.

Homeless and Poor Housing
Many Tanzanian live in poor quality houses. A survey conducted in 1995 had shown that 70% of the population in Dar es salaam city live in squatter settlements. Arusha and Mbeya municipalities have 70% of their population living in similar situation. Mwanza had 40% of its population living in squatter settlements.

Tanzania women are poorer than men despite the fact that women are the major actors in productive and reproductive activities. Of the total population, approximately 51.6% (1995) are woman. They comprise about 54% of the economically active population in rural areas are engaged in agriculture, producing about 60% to 80% of all domestic food supplies and cash crops, and shouldering most domestic work. Despite their contribution to society, Tanzania women do not receive adequate remuneration for their work. Traditional and cultural barriers still block women access to and control of land and other property. Although women contribute most of the labour in productive activities, they have little access to the income generated as men continue to dominate decision making not only within the household but also at national level.

Tanzania women have limited access to employment opportunities in the formal sector. As a result, many have had to adopt survival strategies through the informal sector where many operate without support of extension services or credit. Many of the activities in the informal sector have increased the burden of women.

In education, the girl child has limited opportunities to pursue education. Despite special focus on girls’ education, enrollment in primary schools is still lower than that of male pupils because of parental preference for boys’ education. Only 27.3% of form five (v) students and 24.3 of form six (vi) student are women. This lower representation of women continues up to University level.

Causes of Poverty
In Tanzania poverty is caused by both internal and external factors. Where the internal causes can be clustered into economic and social factors, the external causes relate to international trade, the debt burden and the refugee problem.

Internal Causes o Poverty
Internal causes of poverty include all factors that adversely affect economic growth with equity. Some of the factors are outline hereunder: -


(i.) Economic Policies.
For many yeas the country pursued fiscal and monetary policies which, though promoted equity, did not promote economic growth.

(ii) Insufficient Support to the Agricultural Sector
Though agriculture is the backbone of the economy, the support given to the sector over the years has not been commensurate with its relative importance. This is reflected in poor rural infrastructure and lack of modernization of the sector. Smallholder farmers who dominate the sector remain virtually inaccessible to credit and other forms of relevant support to improve productivity. The inability to modernize the technologies used in the sector, poor rural infrastructure, the non availability of critical farm inputs, the inefficiency of the marketing system and significant post harvest losses have all contribute towards the poor performance of the agricultural sector, hence towards the poverty of the country.

(iii) Inadequate Support to Rural Industries.
The establishment in rural areas of small scale, agro-based industries could have complemented the agricultural sector in the utilization of slack labour, in adding value to agricultural commodities and providing a basis for technological development. By not developing small scale and cottage industries in the rural areas, the rural sector has had to continue to depend on peasant farming system, hence perpetuating poverty.

(iv) Disruption of Local Institution Structures.
The erosion of democratic institution such as local councils and cooperative denied the participation of the people in the management of the economy and in the process their contribution to development activities were marginalized. Even with the reintroduction of the local government and co-operative societies, lack of capacity and inappropriate set up of the cooperatives limited their contribution to development effort in general.

(v) Low level of Technology
The use of poor inappropriate technology leading to low productivity in all sectors has also contributed perpetuation of poverty.

(vi) Poor Gender Division of Labour
Poor division of labour between men and women at the family level especially in rural areas is also another cause of poverty. Women are the ones who shoulder most of the work, a situation which leads to low income hence perpetuating poverty. It has been observed that in work places. Many women are employed in low paid position.

(vii) Laziness and Irresponsibility.
Lack of self-motivation to perform one’s duties due to laziness and being irresponsible contributes to poverty. If every person could do productive work and strive for self-motivation, poverty would be eradicated. Loitering and misuse of time is prevalent in urban areas where many people are either unemployed or irresponsible.


(viii) Diseases
Tanzania is still struggling with common and communicable diseases which have been eradicated in many places in the world. These diseases include malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia, and anemia. These are the main causes of deaths in Tanzania especially for under-fives. Explosion of disease such as cholera and typhoid which have been occurring frequently has impact in Government expenditure both on curative and preventive measures, hence intensifying poverty in the country.

HIV/AIDS epidemic has also contributed to the incidence of other diseases such as TB, skin disease etc. HIV/AIDS incidence fall more on youth who are the main labour force in the economy. It is estimated that up to December 1995 Tanzania had about 1.2million people with HIV/AIDS. If this trend continued to the year 2000, people with HIV/AIDS will reach 3.6million. Despite contributing to communicable disease, HIV/AIDS also increases the extent of poverty in the communities. Many families have been rendered poor through loss of bread-winners. The epidemic has created the problem of orphans both in the rural and urban areas estimated at 200,000 by December 1995. This number is expected to increase to 800,000 or more by the year 2000.

In terms of gender, women bear the brunt of the problem. They have the main responsibilities of taking care of the sick in the family, thus denying them opportunities to generate income and raise their living standards.

(ix) Big Families.
Having many children in one family shows that there are more dependants relative to those who are to work. Such a situation increases the burden of the family in overcoming poverty.

External Causes of Poverty
Several external factors have limited the ability of the country to combat mass poverty. These factors include the debt burden, unequal exchange in international trade and of late the refugee problem.

(i) Debt Burden
One of the major factors that contribute to perpetuate poverty is the debt burden which has continued to drain resources from poor countries to the rich countries. In Tanzania debt servicing is currently about 39 percent of the recurrent budget. This is so huge that inhibits the Government ability to adequately provide social and other services to the public.

(ii) Unequal Exchange in International Trade.
Unequal exchange in international trade has limited the ability of developing countries to break out of the poverty cycle. The country has continued to rely on unprocessed agricultural commodities as the main export crops. But the prices of agricultural products in comparison to those of industrial products have remained unfavourable. This trade relationship has put a severe limit on the ability of the country to break out of the poverty cycle.


(iii) Refugees.
For year Tanzania has been receiving refugees from neighbouring countries. These have been in manageable proportions. However, with the recent ethnic turmoil in Rwanda and Burundi, the country has experienced an influx of refugees never seen before. The two regions of Kagera and Kigoma are now hosting a refugee population of over 700,000 people. The refugee problem has resulted in the depletion of natural resources like water and trees, and the destruction of social infrastructures like dispensaries and schools which were used to host them. The refugee problem has aggravated poverty in the two regions by accelerating environmental degradation and the depletion of food and natural resources.


PREVIOUS EFFORTS IN ERADICATING POVERTY IN TANZANIA
After independence, Tanzania inherited an economic structure which grossly neglected the social welfare of the local population and one which was sternly poised to serve external internal interests set up by the colonial regime. Employment opportunities were extremely limited. About 5 percent of the population was employed but mainly as labourers in foreign-owned plantation estates. Another 5 percent were employed in urban areas as clerks, nurses and housekeepers. A majority about 90 percent of the population, worked on their own land as subsistence farmers. The manufacturing sector was small, foreign-owned and its products were mainly processed primary commodities for export. The health sector was under-developed and poorly served; and most government hospitals were urban based. Education opportunities were limited.

Thus, soon after independence, dramatic state interventions were initiated to reduce economic and social inequalities in resources distribution and control. National campaign “Uhuru na Kazi” and “Uhuru ni Kazi” were launched to extol the virtues of work as a basis for development and self dignity. It was also a strategy of enhancing employment opportunities.

To increase rural incomes and ensure food security, the government embarked on policies and various slogans for promoting agriculture. The slogans accompanying those policies include “Siasa ni Kilimo”, “Chakula ni Uhai”, Kilimo cha Kisasa”, “Kilimo cha umwagiliaji” and soon. Plans were implemented aimed at improving small holder agriculture through better farm management practices and the use of improved technologies. Emphasis was placed on expanding and improving the delivery of services to the agricultural sector. These included the provision of extension services, increasing the availability and use of agricultural inputs, improving the crop marketing system and increasing access to agricultural finance. These efforts could not be sustained due to lack of the necessary infrastructure and absence of institution like local government and co-operatives which would have managed the services.

Also, the Government implemented various policies in the social services sectors for promoting education, health and water. These policies included Universal Primary Education (UPE), Education for self-reliance, Adult Literacy Education, “Mtu ni Afya”, Primary Health Care for All, Water is Life, Water for All, and others. Successes were recorded in implementing these policies. In education, several indicators showed that Tanzania had made tremendous progress in eradicating illiteracy. For example, over 90 percent of school-age going children were able to enter Standard I in primary school and literacy rate of 90 percent was achieved. Success in the health sectors included the increased number of rural and urban health centers, construction of regional and district hospital in most regions and construction of regional and district hospital in most regions and constructions of training centers for medical and health staff. Mother and child health care services also increased. In the water sector, various donor agencies co-operated with the government in delivering water supply services, especially in the rural areas. These services included provision of clean piped water, construction of shallow and deep-water wells and construction of dips for livestock.

However, these gains could not last long, among other things, due to the following shortcomings:-

Poor involvement of people themselves at different stages of planning led to most of the project being unsustainable after completion.

Lack of capital for most of the rural people

Lack o skills to run these programmes/projects especially technical skills, environmental management and protection, evaluation as well as finance management.

All these initiatives were top-down in their nature, thus lacked people’s support.

Previous efforts to eradicate poverty were of `campaign type and not part of socio-economic development plans and programmes. Therefore, they could not be sustained after the campaigns.

Many stakeholders such as government ministries, NGOs and donors implemented their programmes in accordance to their individual perception and priority. There was no guidance and coordination of these efforts.

The National Poverty Eradication Strategy aims at providing a guidance for stakeholders and the poor themselves to identify, implement and evaluate their own programme, and enable different stakeholders to put poverty eradication programmes as part of their overall development plans and programmes.

Tanzania through the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (MKUKUTA) has been trying hard to focus on poverty reduction and country’s development agenda. The NSGRP is informed by the aspirations of Tanzania Development Vision (vision 2025) for high and shared growth, high quality livelihood, peace, stability and unity, good governance high quality education and international competitiveness. Vision 2025 lays out the long term development goals and perspectives against which the strategy for poverty alleviation (NPES) was formulated. The TAS is the result of a mutually felt need by the Government of Tanzania and its international partners for a comprehensive development agenda, around which issues pertaining to ongoing activities can be regularly discussed and assessed. As such, the TAS covers all the development areas that have characteristically been supported by the international partners, both within and outside the framework of the central Government budget. It is hoped that the TAS will provide a useful framework for organizing periodic consultations and dialogue among all development partners. The PRSP is an integral part of the HIPC process, focusing mainly on poverty alleviation, and budget to a relatively hard (Central Government) budget constrains, starting financial year 2000/2001. Nevertheless, the PRSP encompasses poverty-oriented extra-budget-any activities, various non financial considerations that have an important bearing on poverty reduction.

It is committed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS), as internationally agreed target for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women by 2015. It strive to widen the space for country ownership and effective participation of civil society, private sector development and commitment to regional and other international initiatives for social and economic development.

The poverty reduction strategy is based on three considerations. First the strategy is viewed as an instrument for channeling national efforts towards broadly agreed objectives and specific inputs and outputs. The elaboration and implementation of the strategy are fundamentally ongoing processes. While a wide variety of key intervention has already been launched, the preparation of strategies for certain sectors, such as agriculture and education are still underway. Moreover, the implementations of reforms aimed at shifting the responsibilities for formulating, implementing and monitoring poverty reduction intervention by the districts, municipalities, and communities at the grassroots has started, but it will take some time to complete. The overall strategy of poverty reduction will, therefore, need to be managed flexibly, to accommodate additional action play and activities emanating from the going work.

Second, the poverty reduction strategy is to a large extent, an integral part of ongoing macroeconomic and structural reforms that are being supported by Tanzania multilateral and bilateral partners. The Government has chosen, as detailed below to accelerate selected reforms that are likely to have a major impact on poverty reduction. Finally in keeping with concerns of stakeholders, and guided by the overarching orientation of vision 2025 and the NPES. The focus of the poverty reduction strategy concentrates on effects aimed at reducing income poverty, improving human capabilities, survival and social wellbeing and containing extreme vulnerability among the poor

As per PRSP the Government had to take into account seven basic considerations. First, pending the completion of the above – noted key tasks (notably in the ministries of agriculture and education, and in regard to the LGRP) the estimated financing for the poverty reduction programme will be kept under review and up dated to reflect the impact of more thoroughly coasted interventions.

Second, while it is certain that the financing of the poverty reduction programme will derive principal from domestic sources, notably the central government budget an assessment of the revenue impact of ongoing improvement in tax enforcement and administration is fraught with uncertainty.

Third the financial of the poverty alleviation efforts will, as in the past depend substantially on external funded, the availability of which could differ from the project path.

Forth, on the basic of insights MTEF and PER exercises, it is evident that the poverty reduction programme will be constrained severed by available resources. Because of this, the government has opted for a slight deterioration in the fiscal balance, and will also place special emphasis on the cost effectiveness of intended poverty reduction initiatives.

Fifth, the government will strategically support cost-sharing co-financing, and other initiatives aimed at catalyzing deeper involvement by communities and other stakeholders in well – conceived poverty reduction programmes.

Sixth, the government is envisaging that there will be significant changes in the finacing modalities for the poverty reduction programme.

Finally, the government, guided by finding from the stakeholders workshops will continue its financial intervention mostly to
(i) Education
(ii) Health
(iii) Agriculture (search and extension)
(iv) Roads
(v) Water
(vi) Judiciary and
(vii) HIV/AIDS

The Government of Tanzania has recently established a poverty Monitoring system to provide timely, reliable data to inform its Poverty Reduction strategy (PRS) and other policy initiatives. The system incorporates both participatory and survey based research methodologies.

As part of this system, routine Participatory Assessments (PPAS) are being implemented in two year cycles. Though the main purpose is to improve medium and long term development planning, stakeholders also hoped that the PPAS would lead to timely, direct benefits at the local level.

The advantage of this is that data analysis does not depend on speculation by privileged professionals about the conditions people face and instead it is the result of ordinary people reflecting on, theorizing about debating and explaining the world in which they live. Also, participatory research can contribute to social democratization by engaging citizen in policy making process.

On the basis of these characteristics, the Government of Tanzania has decided to make Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPAS) a routine part of its integrated Poverty Monitoring System. PPA provides information to stakeholders to discuss and translate into policies reflecting their institutions unique mandates capacities and circumstances. In other words, these PPA are intended to facilitate making information – based decisions about how to help people get out, and stay out, of poverty.

The Tanzania Participatory Assessment process is being implemented by a multi- sectoral consortium of institutions in two – year cycles timed to feed into the revision of the Governments Poverty Reduction Strategy. Each of these cycles will focus on specific priority information gap. The first cycle began in January 2002 and is taking in depth look at people “vulnerability" to becoming poor or poorer.

As a result of its forward looking approach influencing the Tanzania Participatory Poverty Assessment (TZPPA), quickly began to have an impact in national fora. Some of the best example of positive change set in motion by the TZPPA comes from Ilala District, Dar es Salaam Region. The Municipal Council Economic Planners spent two and a half weeks as par of team conducting participatory research in Mtambani B Ward. Afterwards, the Municipal Management Team assigned responses to issues raised by the study. To date, this has culminated in the:- provision of counseling services to drug users at the district hospital and an appropriate clinic, and formation of new sensitization strategies encouraged equal schooling for girl an boy children. These strategies, unlike those in the past, begin from an understanding of local ideas about gender and education, creation by community members of transparent criteria for extending priority support to especially poor local household.

Status report (2006) show that there is an improvement in different sector. For example overall, the available data sourced from the basic data series of the Ministry of Education and Vocation Training (MoEVT) show positive trends. Net enrolment rats are higher in pre primary, primary and secondary schools, the pupil; teacher ration in primary schools falling; the percentage of pupils passing the primary school leavers Examination is increasing and the percentage of standard seven (vii) pupils going on to secondary school is also raising.

On study done in six district Kilosa, Ilala, Bagamoyo, Mwanza, Moshi and Iringa shows that; In primary education there was immense growth in school enrolment from year 2000 to 2003, enrolment was close to 10% in all six case councils. This case can be attributed to the abolition of school fees in 2001, and to the primary Education Development programme. The pass rate also increased in all case councils, although the majority of grade 7 student were still failing to pass in year 2003. These were some clear signs of progress in the quality of education, measured by indicators such as pupils per classroom, pupils per desk, and pupils per textbook.(Braathen E.&Mwambe G;2003;)

However, the main quality indicators, like pupils per teacher and have a qualified teachers, did not show progress for many of the council. The lack of teacher threatens the sustainability of the reduction reform and tends to widen the gap between advance and backlogging councils.

In basic health services there was significant progress reported from all six council regarding the public situation. The infant mortality rate decreased, and the immunization rate rose to well above 80% in all council. However, problems existed, linked to the health facilities (dispensaries and centres). Although there was progress in accessibility from 2000, around one third of the population in Iringa, Kilosa and Bagamoyo were still without access to health centres in 2003. And despite an improvement in the number of health workers (nurse) and average waiting times for patients at dispensaries, the problem of affordability made the majority of population dissatisfied (more so with health centres than Dispensaries).

The Poverty and Human Development report (2005) provides a similar picture for Tanzania as a whole. There has been a positive reduction of infant mortality from 99 to 68 per 1000 birth and of under five mortality from 147 to 112 per 1000 birth.

In domestic water supply there supply there was no significant progress reported o accessibility, with particular exception of Mwanza. In three districts, around half of the population was not covered by adequate water supply services.

In education the progress report noted the continued impressive expansion of the primary system; enrollments for 2003 again exceed PRS targets. The progress report rightly places increase emphasis on quality; some improvements have been cited, but more needs to be done to improve completion rates. The primary Education Development Program has been successfully implemented, and the Public Expenditure Tracking Study shows that about 95 percent of funds allocated to school were used for the intended purposes.

SUGGESTION
Many efforts have been observed done by the Government of Tanzania to reduce poverty in its people. Among them the Government through PRS has made a difference in Education b:
i. Abolishing fees for primary education and encouraging enrollment of all children who reach the appropriate age for primary school, we expect once they are enrolled, stays at school, study in a positive learning environment, do well in their examination and have an opportunity to continue into secondary Education.
ii. Reduce the infant under five mortality and maternal death by abolishing hospital charges for children’s under five and pregnant women.
iii. Improved source of drinking water in rural areas; many people in the rural areas get clean water for drinking.

There is no policy which hinder people to move / go out of the country with huge amount of money to go there and do business without even the government awareness in such business; This means people can use Tanzania money out side the country and bring home nothing as many Tanzania business people have a little knowledge of making or doing business. For example, a country like South / North Korea do not allow its people to go and invest else where without the ministry responsible for investment acknowledge the transfer of that amount of money and also prove if it is true that there is really such business going on.

But we also have a problem of corruption, if people in the system will be careful enough to make sure people who take loans do they real use them for investing and not doing business; As some people take big loans from banks and use them for spending with their families and for/or with the “Nyumba Ndogos” (meaning having affairs with other women leaving their families suffering).

Sometime they take loans by mortgaging their houses where there family lives; unfortunately when the man die the banks took the houses and live the family without a house to live, leave the family more poor than ever which arises to another problem of children leaving schools and become beggars.

Though the government have been trying hard to conduct seminars on how to do business, more education have to be provided so that they do not use loan for other activities than investing the money into produce activities.

Also the government have been working had to eradicate poverty, their very much concern is on policy making and researches, may be it is because these activities pay then a lot of money; but if you come to implementation.

Though many efforts taken by the Government of Tanzania to improve the standard of living to its people, but some more changes should be consideration in the following areas.

The government should modify the education system to rain agriculture product and introduce handcraft products for example woodwork, hand craft, iron smothery and brick making. The government should also direct powers to rural areas by providing loans.

The government must build capacity of its people. This can be done by providing technology which can be give information’s about different issues. Technology can help people access information’s which can also help to change some people altitude, value and rigid cultures and tradition which persisted for a long time. Through Technology people get exposure different world without even going there people can understand their position and decide to change, as it is very possible that some people do not even know that they are poor, as far as they leave in villages they what they get, they wear toned clothes and don’t even notice that they are almost half faked.

New Technology also has some problem so the government need to aware on that. People may learn things which are not allowed in our African and Tanzania culture.

Poverty is in it self a barrier to equal educational opportunity. A hungry of malnourished child is unlikely to be good at concentrating on school work. The lack of a quite room in which to study at home (and, in area singly a computer) makes homework unattractive and difficult. The government has to formulate strong strategies which can make people improve their agriculture and thus have enough food for their families hence improve their performance in schools.

The opportunity to get fair trial is closed to those who cannot afford high quality legal representation in the absence of a well funded system of legal aid .The government have to practice good governance to reduce corruption.

Social solidarity means a sense of fellow feeling that extent beyond people with whom one is in personal contact, Tanzanian need to have it so that they will be able to help one another..

What they write in books is not seen to be serious. For example, people who live in rural areas depend much on agriculture activities, I think that if a person really want to help them better help them improve the results of their effort. For example the government can make or prepare a way through which different villages will be given tractors in form of loans or whatever so that they improve their productions and also increase the number of hence they take case.

By improving the agriculture section people will not suffer from hunger, and also they can get surplus which will help them to sell and get money which will help them buy other needs pay fees for their children an thus improve their education and standard of living.

In other words we can say that the government should invest much in the rural areas especially in Agriculture by providing education, materials and other related services like water and electricity; put more investment industries in urban area sand small scale industries in rural areas; Bolstering farms by providing the with fair loans from the government, NGO, and other organization; Reduce tax especially in small scale group; Distribute essential services equally such as improving education system and health service Use appropriate technology for example irrigation scheme Increase food production; building people capacity.

The aids which is given by different countries should be handled well and make sure they are used according to the aim of the donors; for example money to fund the HIV/AIDS programs, there are many NGOS which are assigned with huge amount of money, the government has to make sure that the funds reaches the targeted person.

Strong strategies, policies, laws, rules and regulations has to be made to make sure that all revenue that was supposed to collected is collected and used for the benefit of the whole nation not some people


References

1. Bagachwa M.S.D. (1194), Poverty Alleciation in Tanzania Recent Research Issues,
Dar es Salaam University Press, DSM – Tanzania.

2. Braathan Einar Mwambe agaodfrey (2000 – 2003) Service Deliver in Tanzania
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3 Burkey, Stan (1993): People First to A guide to self – Reliant, participatory Rural
Development, ed Books Ltd, New – Jersey 07716, USA.

4. Fei. J. C. and Ranis, G (1964). Development of Labour surplus Economy, Home
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5. Lewis, W. A. (1954) “Economic Development with unlimited supply of labour”
Manchester school of Economic and social studies Vol 20, UK

6. National strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP), (June 2005), Vice
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7. Nyerere Julius K (1969), Freedom and Socialism / Uhuru na Ujamaa, DSM Oxford
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8. Oyen Else, Cimadawa Alberto, Joshi Anuradha, Kniger Joachim H voslef,
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9. Prof. Othman Saida Yahya, Dr. Gorro Mrtha A.S. Dr. Mtinangi Benjamin and
Ulimwengu Jenerali T (2004), WHY IS TANZANIA STILL POOR 40
YEARS AFTER INDEPENDENT? UDSM Commotion, Dar es Salaam
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10. Poverty and Human Development Report 2002.

11. Poverty Reduction Strategy paper (October 2000); Government Printer,
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12. Rodgers Gerry and Hoeven Rolph Vnder (1995), New AAPROACHES TO
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13. The National Poverty Eradication strategy (1998), vice president office, The
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1 comment:

  1. The definition of poverty scared me from reading the entire work.

    ReplyDelete