Thursday, February 25, 2010

THE CONTRIBUTION OF SEDP TO ACCESS AND QUALITY OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN KINONDONI MUNICIPALITY DAR ES SALAAM TANZANIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study
In July 2004 the government launched the Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP) following the primary Education Development Plan (PEDP), which increased the number of pupils who have been selected to join secondary schools. In order to make sure that those who qualify to enter secondary schools, they get the chances to join secondary schools; the SEDP had to be launched to help the situation. SEDP’s main objectives are access improvement; equity improvement; quality improvement; management reforms and devolution of authority and Education Management System improvement.
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The study was conducted in Kinondoni district in Dar es salaam region where there are twenty nine government secondary schools many of them are built by community contributions and the government grants from which five (5) representative schools was selected using random sampling method. About 100 students were also selected from each school randomly. Official leaders like head of schools and other stakeholders were also selected randomly and purposely. Secondary and primary data were collected where primary data were collected using questionnaires, interview techniques and focus group discussions and secondary data are collected from different sources such as books, journals, magazines and reports.
1.2 Statement of the research problem
Tanzania envisages to be a nation whose people are ingrained with a developmental mindset and competitive spirit. These attributes are driven by education and knowledge and are critical in enabling the nation to effectively utilize knowledge in mobilizing domestic resources for assuring the provision of people’s basic needs and for attaining competitiveness in the regional and global economy. Tanzania would brace itself to attain creativity, innovativeness and a high level of quality education in order to respond to development challenges and effectively compete regionally and internationally, cognizant of the reality that competitive leadership in the 21st century will hinge on the level and quality of education and knowledge (Nyerere available at www.africa-eltes,com, 27/10/2008).
The government introduced the SEDP 2004 – 2009 which is an essential and timely sequel to PEDP. The aim of SEDP is quite clear that without the expansion in access stipulated in SEDP, the transition from primary to public secondary schools would drop dramatically. This would clearly be unacceptable, not only to the Government, but also to the parents. It certainly would have acted as a disincentive to primary school enrolment, retention and completion.

The main goal, objectives of SEDP is to increase the proportion of Tanzania youths completing secondary education with acceptable learning outcomes. The Plan will concentrate in the following area: Improvement of Access, equity Improvement: Quality Improvement: Management Reforms and Devolution of Authority: and Education Management System Improvement.

According to Poverty and Human Development report (2007), since the introduction of SEDP, improvement in different areas has been very slow although there is a big improvement in the percentages of students passing from primary to secondary schools has been increasing. For example in 2007 approximately two third of the children at government schools (67.5%) leaving standard seven made the transition to form one. Through expansion in the number of places at government schools secondary schools, the secondary enrollment has also expanded quickly from 6% in 2002 to the secondary enrolment has also expanded quickly from 6% in 2002 to 13.4 in 2006. However the gender balance in government schools deteriorates with the transition to secondary with girls representing only 46.4% of pupils in form one.
It was also targeted that under SEDP 1914 classrooms will be constructed, up to year 2006, 1569 were constructed equal to 82% of the target and also 908 teachers houses out of 958 was constructed equal 95% of the target (URT:2006). 55 dormitories Constructed out of dormitories in 55 schools target, 124 assembly hall Constructed out of 124 assembly hall target, 40 schools has been rehabilitated out of 40 schools target and 121 toilet hole constructed out of 121 toilet holes target.(URT; 2006Annual performance report)

Before 2003, there were modest yearly increase in the number of secondary schools; however, since SEDP, those numbers has risen dramatically. In 2003, there were 649 government secondary schools in the country while in 2006, that number had risen to 1690, a 160% increase in just three years.

The construction of physical facilities has enabled a substantial increase in enrollment in form 1-6, enrollment almost doubled from 345441 in 2003 to 675,672 to 2006. The largest increase occurred in Form one, which increased by 144% from 99,744 to 243,359 over the same period (URT: 2006).

Despite the intervention of SEDP there still problems in the quality of education, teachers, students performances and education management system. We have been witnessing many types of strikes including the teachers strike and higher learning institutions student’s strikes. For example in the Guardian of Saturday November 15th 2008 reported on the teachers strike set for November 17th 2008. These are some of the evidence that there still some problems in Education sector.
This study wants to access the contribution of the SEDP to education, quantity, quality, and accessibility of Education in Tanzania particularly in Kinondoni district.

1.3 Research Objective
1.3.1 Main objectives
The main objective of the research is to access the contribution of the SEDP in education sector in Kinondoni district.
1.3.2 Specific objective
(iTo identfy the objectives and indicators of SEDP in Kinondoni municipal
(ii) To determine the volume of SEDP contribution to education in Kinondoni municipal
(iii) To explain the significant of SEDP in Kinondoni municipal.
(iv) To draw and explore challenges facing SEDP in Kinondoni municipal
1.4 Research Questions
1.4.1 General questions: Is there any contribution or improvement to education sector after introduction of the SEDP program.
1.4.2 Specific questions:
(i) What are the objectives and indicators of SEDP in Kinondoni municipal ?
(ii) Is secondary education in Tanzania accessible to all those who qualify to join
secondary schools
(iii) What are the significant of SEDP in Kinondoni district
(iv) What are the challenges facing SEDP in Kinondoni district



1.5 Relevancy of the study
· Since the importance of education to contribute to sustainable poverty reduction is open, adoption of the results of this study may enhance those who responsible to help the education institution to increase their outreach and also those concern to help parents to help their children in getting quality education and thus plan for their own development.
· The results of the study will also benefit the policy makers to look more on the policies governing the education sector to consider all groups in getting equal education.
· The result of this study may also explore some opportunities for the investors in education sector to invest in Education.
· This study also is important to the person doing the study as the completion of this research in time will allow her to graduate that is to be awarded the Master degree in Business Administration (MBA)













CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction
This chapter reviews the literature of different aspects related to secondary education. First the chapter discussess different theories reviewed, discusses the real situation in Tanzania particularly in Kinondoni municipal and policies which were also reviewed are discussed. Theories in education from different writers were also discussed in this chapter and the gaps were identified.

2.2 Definitions of key terms
Theoretical review
Education is the great engine of personal development. It is through education that the daughter of a peasant can become a doctor, that the son of a mineworker, can become the head of the mine, that the child of farm workers can become the president of a great nation (Nelson Mandela, 2005)
Education is also defined as the process or art of imparting knowledge, skill and judgment; Facts, skills and ideas that have been learnt, either formally or informally en.wiktionary.org/wiki/education
Quality education should be focused on student skills. To achieve the necessary outcomes we need inputs which include classrooms, teachers, textbooks, libraries, laboratory and clean environment.



2.3 Empirical review
Before colonization people in Africa were learning by living and doing, this was proved by Mandela (2005)as he argued that the fact that pre-colonial Africa did not have ‘schools’ except for short periods of initiation in some tribes did not mean that the children were not educated. They learned by living and doing. In the homes and on the farms they were taught the skills of the society, and the behaviour expected of its members. They learned the kind of grasses which were suitable for which purposes, the work which had to be done on the crops, or the care which had to be given to animals, by joining with their elders in this work. They learned the tribal history, and the tribe’s relationship with other tribes and with the spirits, by listening to the stories of the elders. Through these means, and by the custom of sharing to which young people were taught to conform, the values of the society were transmitted. Education was thus ‘informal’; every adult was a teacher to a greater or lesser degree. But this lack of formality did not mean that there was no education, nor did it affect its importance to the society. Indeed, it may have made the education more directly relevant to the society in which the child was growing up. Education is the great engine of personal development. It is through education that the daughter of a peasant can become a doctor that the son of a mineworker, can become the head of the mine, that the child of farm workers can become the president of a great nation. (Mandela, 2005)
According to Nyerere (1969) the education provided by the colonial government in the two countries which now form Tanzania had a different purpose. It was not designed to prepare young people for the service of their own country; instead it was motivated by a desire to inculcate the values of the colonial society and to train individuals for the service of the colonial state. In these countries the state interest in education therefore stemmed from the need for local clerks and junior officials; on top of that, various religious groups were interested in spreading literacy and other education as part of their evangelical work. This meant that colonial education induced attitudes of human inequality, and in practice underpinned the domination of the weak by the strong, especially in the economic field. Colonial education in this country was therefore not transmitting the values and knowledge of Tanzanian society from one generation to the next; it was a deliberate attempt to change those values and to replace traditional knowledge by the knowledge from a different society. It was thus a part of a deliberate attempt to effect a revolution in the society; to make it into a colonial society which accepted its status and which was an efficient adjunct to the governing power. Its failure to achieve these ends does not mean that it was without an influence on the attitudes, ideas, and knowledge of the people who experienced it. Nor does that failure imply that the education provided in colonial days is automatically relevant for the purposes of a free people committed to the, principle of equality.
The independent state of Tanzania in fact inherited a system of education which was in many respects both inadequate and inappropriate for the new state. It was, however, its inadequacy which was most immediately obvious. So little education had been provided that in December, 1961, we had too few people with the necessary educational qualifications even to man the administration of Government as it was then, much less undertake the big economic and social development work which was essential. Neither was the school population in 1961 large enough to allow for any expectation that this situation would be speedily corrected. On top of that, education was based upon race, whereas the whole moral case of the independence movement had been based upon a rejection of racial distinctions.
2.3.1 Action since Independence
First, the racial distinctions within education were abolished. Complete integration of the separate racial systems was introduced very soon after independence, and discrimination on grounds of religion was also brought to an end. A child in Tanzania can now secure admittance to any Government or Government-aided school in this country without regard to his race or religion and without fear that he will be subject to religious indoctrination as the price of learning.
Secondly, there has been a very big expansion of educational facilities available, especially at the secondary school and post-secondary school levels. In 1961 there were 490,000 children attending primary schools in Tanganyika, the majority of them only going up to Standard IV. In 1967 there were 825,000 children attending such schools, and increasingly these will be full seven-year primary schools. In 1961, too, there were 11,832 children in secondary schools, only 176 of whom were in Form VI.
The third action taken was to make the education provided in all our schools much more Tanzanian in content. No longer do Tanzanians children simply learn British and European history. There has been a greater improvement in the Universities, College and other institutions which are providing materials on the history of Africa and making these available to our teachers. The national songs and dances are once again being learned by our children; Kiswahili, the national language has been given the importance in school curriculum which it needs and deserves. Also, civics classes taken by Tanzanians are beginning to give the secondary school pupils an understanding of the organization and aims of the state. In these and other ways changes have been introduced to make Tanzanians educational system more relevant to the community needs.

Prior to independence, access to basic education in Tanzania was scarce, with wide inequities in terms of race, region and gender. Many primary schools had been established by Christian missionaries, hence providing Christians with favourable education access. In 1947 under 10 percent of the school-age population was enrolled in primary school. At the secondary level under one per cent of the school-age population was enrolled and no females had ever progressed beyond the primary level (Cameron and Dodd 1970: 102, 104).

Immediately after independence, in 1961 education policy focused firstly on strengthening the secondary level, which was to expand in line with manpower planning requirements, to train local people for the public sector in order to replace the expatriate work force, and secondly on providing a basic education system appropriate for the emerging Socialist Tanzania. A more agriculturally-based primary curriculum was introduced following the Arusha Declaration in 1967 with a new policy of Education for Self-Reliance (ESR) encouraging each school to contribute to its own upkeep through income raising activities. Primary schooling was planned to expand gradually so as to achieve UPE (Universal Primary Education) by 1989. The decision to abolish school fees at primary level in 1973 was expected to support this expansion.

However, the implementation date for UPE was brought forward to 1977 in the Musoma Resolution of 1974 on the grounds that resource constraints would always be operative and delaying universal provision of basic education was politically inconsistent for a socialist government. The Musoma Resolution sought to make primary education compulsory, universal and terminal. Consequently, in 1978 an Education Act was passed which made primary enrolment and attendance between the ages of seven and 13 compulsory.

Contravention of this Act led to some parents being fined or even imprisoned. The number of primary pupils increased almost immediately after the Musoma Resolution, with enrolments increasing four fold during the 1970s and continuing to rise until 1983. The expansion at primary level was not, however, matched by a similar expansion at secondary level. Consequently despite a small rise in the absolute numbers of secondary school enrolees, the percentage of standard VII leavers continuing to secondary school plummeted - falling from 36 percent in 1961 to 19 per cent in 1967 and to only 7 per cent in 1980 (Knight and Sabot 1990). The proportion rose to about 15 per cent by the early 1990s following a change in policy regarding restrictions on the private/NGO sector in the mid 1980’s. Prior to 1984, the private secondary school operations were severely restricted by government. By consequence, the percentage of Form I pupils in non government secondary schools rose from 7 per cent in 1960 to 29 per cent in 1970 to 43 per cent in 1980 and 60 per cent in 1992. However, the dramatic and rapid expansion at primary level, combined with declining national economic performance and constrained government finance, had detrimental consequences in terms of education quality. Parents began to complain of illiterate primary graduates, the benefits of schooling were questioned; enrolment rates declined and drop-out rates increased. The GER declined from a peak of 96 per cent in 1983 to an estimated 73.5 per cent in 1990. In efforts to address the economic crisis the government turned towards more free market policies adopting a structural adjustment programme which included major currency devaluation, the curtailment of government expenditure, civil service retrenchment and extensive privatisation. In line with these economic changes the education sector began to encourage private sector involvement and seek a broader resource base for the financing of education. The changing economic environment would be expected to alter the costs and future benefits of education. By the mid 1990s households faced rising costs at primary and secondary levels. Low enrolments and high drop-outs continue to characterise the primary education system, and rising direct costs to households have raised fears that enrolments may decline further (IDS and MOEC 1996) although there has been strong government commitment to tackling the problems of the education sector (Primary Education Master Plan 1995a).

2.3.2 The Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP)
The Government of Tanzania has always been investing in human capital as central to the quality of lives of Tanzanians. Year 2001 was an earnest beginning of a concerted Government effort to revitalize the education system under the umbrella of the Education Sector Development Program (ESDP). An overall framework for the development of the education system was prepared in 1998 covering all education sub-sectors. The Plan had five main objectives: (a) expand access to primary education; (b) improve education quality at that level; (c)increase pupils retention and completion; (d) improve institutional arrangements; and (e) enhance capacity building for efficient and effective delivery of education services. The Plan is now firmly on the ground with visible success outcomes. (URT 2004 )

The ESDP Plan outlines the framework for achieving greater access to secondary education while simultaneously tackling equity, retention, quality and management issues. ESDP also addresses the Government’s policy on decentralization of the management of delivery of social services, including education and focuses also on capacity building for the central government in order to improve execution of its core functions of policy formulation, provision of a responsive regulatory framework, quality assurance, and improved monitoring and evaluation. This visionary plan with projections of up to 2010 when the country achieve 50 per cent primary-secondary transition rate that may translate into having over 500,000 pupils joining secondary schools annually which will dramatically change the out look of secondary education enrolment reaching above 2,000,000 by 2010 compared to 345,000 in 2003.

The Quality improvement components of the plan address the provision of high quality competences, required aptitudes and right attitudes in all subjects. Particular attention is to be paid to competences in the sciences, mathematics, and the languages, especially those of instruction and learning which are also medium of dialogue as well as intellectual and commercial transaction.

2.3.3 Kinondoni District
Kinondoni District is the northernmost of three districts in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the others being Temeke (to the far Southeast) and Ilala (downtown Dar es Salaam). To the east is the Indian Ocean, to the north and west the Pwani Region of Tanzania. The 2002 Tanzanian National Census showed that the population of Kinondoni was 1,083,913. The area of Kinondoni is 531 km². The original inhabitants of Kinondoni were the Zaramo and Ndengereko, but due to urbanization the district has become multi-ethnic. (wikipedia the free encyclopedia)
Administratively, Kinondoni District is divided into 4 divisions, 27 different wards, and 113 sub-wards. The list of the wards in Kinondoni District include Bunju, Goba, Hananasif, Kawe, Kibamba, Kigogo, Kijitonyama, Kimara, Kinondoni, Kunduchi, Mabibo, Magomeni, Makuburi, Makumbusho, Makurumula, Manzese, Mbezi, Mburahati, Mbweni, Mikocheni, Msasani, Mwananyamala, Mzimuni, Ndugumbi, Sinza, Tandale and Ubungo (wikipedia the free encyclopedia)
Prime Minister Edward Lowassa has urged leaders in Dar es Salaam to encourage people to contribute towards development of the education sector. Lowassa made the call yesterday during an official tour to inspect the pace of construction of secondary schools and classrooms in the region, where he visited the region`s three municipalities of Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke. He said leaders overseeing the exercise should boost transparency in managing books of accounts by providing information on revenue and expenditure so that contributors could understand what is going on in the projects. `All the leaders are supposed to provide information on the way money for construction of schools and classrooms was being spent as they are the ones who have contributed towards it,` he said. He said people were bound to doubt if their contributions had been used well if they fail to give information on how the money had been spent. Lowassa also urged residents of Dar es Salaam to contribute towards education projects as they do for wedding ceremonies contributions. In Dar es Salaam region is very difficult to believe that we lag behind Tabora, Shinyanga and Dodoma who have admitted all the candidates who passed to join secondary schools successful, why not Dar es Salaam,` he said.
The prime minister inspected the construction of Kibada and Toangoma A and B Secondary Schools in Temeke District, Kimwani and Kivule Secondary schools in Ilala district and Kijitonyama and Makumbusho secondary schools in Kinondoni district. He had wanted to ascertain the possibility of admitting 75 per cent of successful candidates of primary education in 2006 who did not make it to secondary level due to shortage of classrooms.
Dar es Salaam Regional commissioner Abbas Kandoro promised the PM that his region will ensure that it admits 75 per cent of successful standard seven candidates by March 15. He said that 426 classrooms will be completed by March and a total of 17,062 successful candidates who amount to 75 per cent will be admitted. Kandoro said that 52 new schools will be built to add up to 50 schools at present to make a total of 102 secondary schools in the region. Kandoro expressed his appreciation to the people who made different donations as 13,824 iron sheets, 90 tones of iron bars, 2,200 bags of cement and 35m/- were collected. However, Kandoro complained to the Prime Minister that the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training had delayed in issuing money for the construction of the school. (The Guardian of 1st October 2007)
Dar es Salaam`s Kinondoni Municipal Council leaders has warned parents and guardians in Dar es Salaam to be especially careful when seeking enrolment for their children in private schools in the city, saying many do not meet required standards. According to the municipality`s educational officer, Dionece Boay, many of the schools in question are yet to comply with the guidelines and criteria set by the Education and Vocational Training ministry. `The schools need to operate from premises that could be described as a reasonably bog chunk of land. In urban areas it should be at least four acres, while in rural areas it should exceed twice the size,` he explained, without saying why the requirements have been kept secret until now. He said the municipality would any day from today publish a list of all unregistered schools, including those owned by religious institutions, individuals and trusts and managed by boards of trustees. `Given the recent proliferation of substandard schools in the city, parents and guardians would be well advised to contact ward education officers before enrolling their children in any of the schools,` noted Boay. `We have already made in-depth investigations into the issue and have identified all schools that haven been operating or are planning to be up and running before being registered. We strongly advise parents and guardians to first check whether the schools are legally registered before enrolling their children there. (The Guardian of 1st October 2007)
He added: `Those failing to heed our advice risk ending up losing their money and time because their children will not sit for any nationally recognized examinations.` The officer was surprised that some naughty schools were still in operation without complying with stipulated conditions despite a notice issued by the municipality in 2006 ordering all unregistered schools to close down. The municipality`s alert cames only days after Standard Seven pupils completed their final examinations, where those doing well enough will be eligible for secondary school education. (The Guardian of 1st October 2007)
It also coincides with frantic efforts by parents and guardians to register their children for entrance examinations at an array of private secondary schools in different parts of the country. This is just in case the children are not enrolled in government schools or their parents or guardians prefer private schools, where fees are generally a lot higher. A random survey by Pastor Nguvu shows that some of the schools are busy advertising themselves in a bid to attract students to enroll beginning January next year. The survey further shows that some of the schools are in pathetic environmental state as well as in terms of infrastructure, basic facilities and tutorial and support staff. Many are simple residential houses that have been partitioned and modified into small units to serve as classrooms. (The Guardian of 1st October 2007)

The Tanzanian educational system is based on the 7-4-2-3 system: 7 years of primary school, followed by four years of secondary school leading to Ordinary Level (0-level) exams in nine subjects, followed by two more years leading to the Advanced Level (A-level) exams in nine subjects, including General Studies. In the second year of secondary school, there is a national assessment examination which allows those who pass to continue to study for an additional two years. After those two years, students take the Certificate of Secondary Education Exam (CSEE), held in November; the results come out in February or March of the following year. Two years later, A-level exams are given. After the final year of secondary school, the thirteenth year students can take the Advanced Certificate examination, which is recognized all over the world. On the average, a student can complete the Bachelor's degree in three years, although some majors require more time.

Education is an important factor in reducing poverty. Tanzania being among the poor country in the world, its GDP per capital is US$ 300 which is less than the average for Sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia of US$ 500 and US$ 970 respectively. (World Bank report). Tanzania needs to put more effort in education, educating its people so that it will increase its social capital and thus improve its economic status.

Despite a focus on education, the country’s development strategies and the support of donors, universal primary education has not yet been achieved. Therefore, together with donors, the Government launched the Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP) in 2001. Its aim was to ensure that all children have equitable access to a good quality primary education. European Commission funding aims to strengthen the PEDP by focusing on district programmes.

Structure and Status of the Education System
From its unpromising situation 15 years ago, Tanzania’s education system has improved markedly in recent years. Formal education in Mainland Tanzania is structured into a system of 2 years of pre-primary, 7 years of primary, 4 years of lower secondary (“secondary ordinary level” in Tanzanian usage), 2 years of upper secondary (“secondary advanced level”) and 3 years or more of post-secondary education.

Pre-primary education is intended for children aged 5-6 and coverage is surprisingly widespread for a low-income country. In 2006 the NER for the 5-6 age group reached 28.5 percent, with an almost equal ratio between boys and girls. Pre-primary is a government affair, with private institutions accounting for only 2.3 percent of enrolments. The Social Welfare Department of the Ministry of Labour, Youth Development and Sports has registered 762 day care centers, each of which has 50-100 children enrolled, and these are concentrated in urban areas, accessible to those able to pay fees ranging between TSh 3, 000 to TSh 300,000 per month.

Primary education in 2006 comprised enrolments of 7,959,884 in 14,700 schools. Girls and boys are equally enrolled (GPI = 0.99). The teacher to student ratio is 1:52 and in some regions (Mwanza, Rukwa, Shinyanga) the average teacher to student ratio exceeds 1:60. Primary schooling is almost exclusively government run, with only 1 percent of enrolments in private schools. In 2006 the NER was over 96 percent, a substantial improvement on the 2002 NER of 81 percent. Late starting means that there are substantial over-age enrolments, and this is reflected in a GER of 112.7 percent in 2006. Dropout and repeater rates have been improving, but remain high for the transition between Standards IV and V, principally as a consequence of the Standard IV Primary School Examination. After Standard IV, 10.9 percent of students repeat and 7.4 percent dropout.

Primary completion rates have to be interpreted cautiously in Tanzania. Measured only as enrolments in each grade, the improving repeater and dropout rates mean that cohort retention between Standards I and VII has reached 78 percent, with girls doing somewhat better than boys (79 percent versus 77 percent). However, the completion rate falls drastically if primary completion is interpreted to mean attainment of the certificate which certifies a pass in the Standard VII Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). In 1998 only 21.3 percent of candidates passed. In 2005, 61.8 percent of candidates passed.

Having attained these outputs, the Government decided to put more concerted effort to the secondary education tier, which, apart from being vital for sustainable economic take off of the country, it has personal and great social benefits crucial for the modernization and development of society as a whole. Without the expansion in access stipulated in SEDP, the transition from primary to public secondary schools would drop dramatically. The Government of Tanzania approved different policies and programs which include the Secondary Education Development Plans (SEDP) which came after the launching and implementation of the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) in 2002-2006 (URT, 2006).

In July 2004, the Government of Tanzania launched the Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP) covering the five year period from 2004 to 2009. The plan aims to overhaul secondary Education across the country. Such a move is critical for several reasons: First, implementation of PEDP has substantially increased the number of children’s completing primary schools and thus increases the Demand for secondary education. These higher enrollment numbers have created an upward pressure for spaces in secondary schools. Second, the SEDP operationalizes key policy commitments in the vision 2025 and the National Strategy for growth and reduction of Poverty (NSGRP or MKUKUTA in Swahili) documents, which identify education as critical to the country’s overall economic and social development (Hakielimu; 2007).

The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP) is the second outcome of the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP), and will cover all levels of secondary education. It builds on the analysis and recommendations of the Master Plan, the March 1999 ESDP Appraisal Exercise and a series of studies including the Secondary Education status – (2003) which were commissioned to analyze key areas of secondary education and recommendations on specific policies, programmes, reforms, and development options.

SEDP outlines the framework for achieving greater access to secondary education while simultaneously tackling equity, retention, quality and management issues. SEDP also addresses the Government’s policy on decentralization of the management of delivery of social services, including education and focuses also on capacity building for the central government in order to improve execution of its core functions of policy formulation, provision of a responsive regulatory framework, quality assurance, and improved monitoring and evaluation. This is a visionary plan with projections of up to 2010 when it is expected to achieve 50 per cent primary-secondary transition rate that may translate into having over 500,000 pupils joining Form one in secondary schools annually which would be about five times the rate in 2004 (URT, 2004).

According to Rakesh Rajani (2004) there is no nation in the world which can have true development and democracy without education. Taking into consideration the importance of education, the Government has launched the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) and the Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP). The aim of PEDP and SEDP is to ensure that more Tanzanian children access quality education. PEDP and SEDP implementation requires each of us to be accountable; be it a teacher, student, parent, community member or a leader. PEDP and SEDP successes are obvious and will continue to be there. SEDP has the following objectives:
(a) widen access and equity in basic education through equitable distribution of
institutions and resources;
(b) improve the quality of education through strengthened in-service teacher training,
adequate teaching and learning materials, rehabilitation of physical facilities,
consolidated pre-service teacher training, and strengthened monitoring and evaluation
system;
(c) expand and improve girls’ education;
(d) provide facilities in disadvantaged areas;
(e) broaden the base for education financing through cost-sharing and establishment of
education funds;
(f) decentralize management of institutions so as to devolve more powers of management
and administration to regions, districts, communities and institutions;
(g) promote science and technology by intensifying technical and vocational education
and training, rationalising tertiary institutions;
(h) promote life-long learning through non-formal and distance education programmes
(i) involve the private sector to expand provision of both formal and non-formal
education and training. (URT 2004 )
However, implementation challenges are also experienced and they need to be dealt with in transparently. Challenges are to be expected when you are ambitious. The important point is to identify problems openly and honestly, as this is the first step in solving them.
According to the African Development Fund Report (2007), the proposed program in support of the Secondary Education Development Plan has its basis in the government’s Education and Training Policy and the Education Sector Development Program (ESDP). The ESDP provides direction in the development of education and is based on a comprehensive analysis of the education sector in Tanzania. It defines the country’s educational priorities and was developed with extensive participation of all stakeholders. Under the ESDP, a Primary Education Development Program (PEDP) for the period 2002 -2006 and Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP) for the period 2004 – 2009 were also developed. The proposed ADF education program is planned to fit into this education development framework by supporting the strategies expressed in the ESDP and the implementation of the programs contained in the SEDP. The National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) (2005/06 to 2009/10) is the current organizing framework for economic and social development in Tanzania. The NSGRP is committed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and seeks to reduce poverty by focusing on the following three clusters: (i) growth and reduction of income poverty; (ii) improvement of quality of life and social well-being, and (iii) good governance. The program will support education development, which is included in the second cluster.

The program will support the implementation of activities supported by SEDP. These activities include the expansion and improvement of physical facilities; provision of teaching and learning materials; training of teachers; reduction of barriers to secondary education for children from poor households through the provision of scholarships; supporting programs aimed at improving the retention of girls in schools; and strengthening of the capacity for education management.

2.3.4 Program Implementation
The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, in collaboration with the Prime Minister’s Office, Regional Administration and Local Government, is responsible for the implementation of SEDP. The ADF program will support the implementation of SEDP. Therefore it will use the institutional arrangements already in place for the implementation of SEDP. The preparation of the work plans and their execution are decentralized and are carried out at the school and local government council levels.

The proposed program responds to Tanzania’s need to increase access and improve the quality and equity of education. It will contribute to the Government’s effort to increase access and improve secondary education, especially in remote rural areas with little access to secondary education. The program will support the implementation of the government’s Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP). It is recommended that an ADF loan not exceeding UA 20.00 million be extended to the Government of Tanzania in the form of sector budget support.

Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in Africa. Its per capita GDP stood at around US$300 in 2005 compared to sub-Saharan Africa’s average of US$568. It is estimated that about 36 percent of the population live below the poverty line. Poverty is also more prevalent among the rural areas, where 87% of the poor live although they account for 67 percent of the population. The UNDP’s 2006 Human Development Report ranks Tanzania 162 out of 177 countries.

The government’s overall objective is the reduction of poverty. The National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) (2005-2010), which is widely known by its Swahili acronym of MKUKUTA, is the current framework for economic and social development in Tanzania. The NSGRP is committed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and seeks to reduce poverty by focusing on the following three clusters: (i) growth and reduction of income poverty; (ii) improvement of quality of life and social well-being, and (iii) good governance.

The proposed ADF education program has its basis in the government’s Education and Training Policy and the Education Sector Development Program (ESDP). The ESDP is the education sector’s response to the government policy of poverty reduction. The ESDP provides direction in the development of education and is based on a comprehensive analysis of the education sector in Tanzania. It defines the country’s educational priorities and was developed through extensive participation of all stakeholders. Under the ESDP, a Primary Education Development Program (PEDP) for the period 2002-2006 and Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP) for 2004–2009 were also developed. The proposed ADF education program is planned to fit into this education development framework by supporting the strategies expressed in the ESDP and the implementation of the programs contained in the SEDP.

In June 2005 the Ministry of Education submitted a proposal requesting ADF assistance in the improvement of secondary education. Consequently, in July 2006 the Bank undertook an identification mission to explore priority areas for support in the sector under a new ADF education program. The identification mission met government officials and representatives of development partners active in the education sector and agreed that future ADF assistance will be within the context of the Education and Training Policy and will support priorities set in the Education Sector Development Program (ESDP). Within the sector development program, it was also agreed that future ADF support to the sector should primarily focus on the secondary education sub-sector with the aim of contributing to efforts to increase access and improve the quality of secondary education.

The expansion of primary education in recent years has created a huge demand for secondary education. Consequently, the secondary education sub-sector expanded, largely as a result of the establishment of community secondary schools. But the expansion is inadequate to meet the demand for secondary education and the quality of secondary education provided remains very poor, adversely impacting on the skill levels of the working population. To address the serious access, quality and equity issues in secondary education, the government formulated the SEDP, which is the first phase (2004-2009) of a 15 year program. SEDP is supported by government and community resources and an IDA credit provided through sector budget support, but nonetheless remains seriously under-funded. It was therefore agreed during the preparation mission of February 2007 that the new ADF program should support the implementation of SEDP to assist the country address the access, quality and equity issues in secondary education. Furthermore, in order to ensure the maximum effectiveness of the ADF program, ADF resources will also be made available through a sector budget support. The ADF program will only cover Mainland Tanzania and will not include Zanzibar as the SEDP covers the mainland only. Also, at present the requirements for sector budget support are not in place in Zanzibar and all assistance to the education sector in Zanzibar is provided through project support. The program was appraised by a Bank mission that visited Tanzania in April/May 2007.

The program will support government efforts to increase access and improve the quality and equity of secondary education provided in Tanzania. This is consistent with the country’s strategies for reducing poverty as the program will support the second cluster of the NSGRP, namely improvement of quality of life and social well-being. In addition, the support is consistent with the Bank’s education sector policy and complements the assistance provided by other development partners, as well as building on the achievements of ADF Education II Project, which provided support for improvements in the quality of secondary education.

The sector budget support funding modality adopted for the program is in line with the
Joint Assistance Strategy for Tanzania (JAST) approved by the government in December 2006 and supported by the Bank and other development partners. Under the JAST, Tanzania’s preferred mode of assistance is general budget support.

Tanzania is currently pursuing the second phase of its poverty reduction strategy, the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty, which is widely known by its Swahili acronym of MKUKUTA. This is aimed at improvement in broader social indicators (especially education and health) as well as a reduction in income poverty.

The argument in Tanzania is that the quality improvements (textbooks, materials, classrooms) made possible by the Primary Education Development Program have brought about a systematic improvement in the PSLE pass rate.

Secondary education is displaying dramatic change. In past years its most notable characteristic was its small size, with a GER for Forms 1-4 of only 10 percent in 2002 and of 1.8 percent for Forms 5 and 6. Since then the number of schools has more than doubled (from 1,024 in 2002 to 2,289 in 2006) with government schools accounting for most of the increase (599 to 1,690). Enrolments have more than doubled (323,418 for Forms 1- 6 in 2002) to 675,672 in 2006. In 2005 520,717 students were enrolled in Standard VII. Of these, 493,946 sat the PSLE and 304,936 passed. “Completion” in terms of those enrolled in Standard VII and who achieved a PSLE pass is therefore 58.6 percent. Of those who passed, a total of 243,359 were offered a place in either a Government or private secondary school. Measured in terms of Standard VII enrolment, the transition rate to secondary school is therefore 46.7 percent. The survival rate from Standard I in 1999 (736,088 enrolments) to Form 1 in 2006 is 33 percent. United Government of Tanzania, Education Sector Situation Analysis, Final Report, 2005, page 38 offers an opposing view, suggesting that new methods of defining pass and fail are largely responsible for the observed improvement in the pass rate. Government schools in Tanzania include not only those which are built and run by government but also those which are built by the community and then operated and managed by government.

Secondary schooling in Tanzania is driven heavily by the requirements of external exams. There is an examination after Form 2, and then more critically, because it certifies both the end of the cycle and admission to upper secondary, the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (CSEE) takes place after Form 4. The Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education Examination (ACSEE) is taken at the end of Form 6 and provides the competitive basis for admission to higher education.

Post-secondary education and training takes place (i) in a diverse range of some 1,000 TVET colleges and institutions, many of them very small but in total servicing 150,000 students per year; (ii) 13 teachers’ colleges which train Diploma teachers and 19 which train Grade A teachers (16,668 students were enrolled in these colleges in 2005); and (iii) 8 public universities and 13 private universities with a total of 37,576 enrolments in 2005, including 12,940 in the Open University.

HIV/AIDS is a cross-cutting issue that impacts on all levels of education. Data from the Teachers’ Service Commission show that the cumulative number of deaths of teachers recorded between 2000 and 2004 was 4,015. Taking into account the causes of death recorded and the profiles of terminal diseases, it is probable that many of these deaths were HIV related. The reduction of the number of pupils due to HIV/AIDS is harder to measure, since “truancy” is the major reported reason for dropout from school and this may conceal a variety of reasons for absenteeism, including HIV/AIDS.

2.5 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
SEDP aims at improving secondary education status in Tanzania. The objectives of SEDP can only be achieved only if there are enough teachers and competent teachers, availability of teaching and learning materials, availability of secondary schools with enough chances which gives equal chances to students who complete standard seven and qualify to join secondary schools to join secondary school. Not only that but also the policies, rules and laws should be in favour of the SEDP programm










Availability of committed (hard working) and well trained teachers


Access to education (availability of secondary schools)

Availability of teaching/learning material

Community involvement

Committed studens, low rate of drop out

High quality education2.5 CONCEPTIAL FRAMEWORK





Policies, Rules &
Registration








Intermediaries






Independent variables Dependent variables


2.5.1 Gaps Identified
People were sending their children to private schools of which some were not registered and were not in good learning environments. The literatures did not show how those schools get the building permission if they do not meet the conditions to be registered. The literature reviewed did not show the contribution of SEDP in education specifically in Kinondoni districtsince 2004 to 2009. This study’s aim is to identify the contribution of SEDP to education in Kinondoni district.

2.5.2 The underlying assumptions
The underlying assumptions of this study is that any improvement in number of teachers trained, training materials, more schools constructed, the quality of education will be improved and thus the country will get well trained labour force and thus improve different sectors which at the end improves social or community wellbeing.

2.5.2 The elements or variables
The study consist two types of variables, the dependent and independent variables. The quality of education and number of students enrolled are the dependent variable where teacher’s qualifications and availability, schools, classes, libraries and laboratory and teaching and learning materials are the independent factors.

2.5.3 Relationships between the elements
The relationship between the elements is that improvement of the communities development depends much on the education provided in schools, and how possible is the process of accessing education to all people, which also include increasing awareness about the of different things such as business, agriculture and soon



CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


3.1 Overview
Tanzania is located in East Africa and has a population of 30 million. Its political capital is Dodoma, while its main commercial city is Dar es Salaam. Dar es salaam is divided into three districts, which are Kinondoni, Temeke and Ilala. As Kiswahili being the official language, it is used as the medium of instruction in primary schools and is also taught as a subject. In Government schools, English is taught as a subject from Standard three onwards and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools and other institutions of higher learning. All primary school textbooks, except English textbooks, are written in Kiswahili. English textbooks are used in secondary schools and institutions of higher learning.

3.2 Research design and strategies
The design of the study has been the descriptive and diagnostic research. According to Kothari (2004) the descriptive research studies are those study which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or a group, where as diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else.

Owiso (2001) defined descriptive research as a scientific method of investigating in which data are collected and analyzed in order to provide description and explanations about the current status of a problem. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approach. This seemed to be the ideal method because of the need to present a descriptive and explanation of the situation of the current problem. It also describes the main variables associated with current problem.
3.2.1 Area of the study
Kinondoni District is the northernmost of three districts in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the others being Temeke (to the far Southeast) and Ilala (downtown Dar es Salaam). To the east is the Indian Ocean, to the north and west the Pwani Region of Tanzania. The 2002 Tanzanian National Census showed that the population of Kinondoni was 1,083,913. The area of Kinondoni is 531 km². The original inhabitants of Kinondoni were the Zaramo and Ndengereko, but due to urbanization the district has become multi-ethnic.
Administratively, Kinondoni District is divided into four divisions, 27 different wards, and 113 sub-wards. The list of the wards in Kinondoni District include Bunju, Goba, Hananasif, Kawe, Kibamba, Kigogo, Kijitonyama, Kimara, Kinondoni, Kunduchi, Mabibo, Magomeni, Makuburi, Makumbusho, Makurumula, Manzese, Mbezi, Mburahati, Mbweni, Mikocheni, Msasani, Mwananyamala, Mzimuni, Ndugumbi, Sinza, Tandale and Ubungo (wikipedia the free encyclopedia)
The study was conducted in Kinondoni district because Kinondoni was among the districts which had no public secondary schools till late nineties (90’s) when many schools are built using community contributions and Kinondoni district is not far from the place where the researcher resides and thus reduces some cost such as transport, accommodation and food expenses.

3.2.2 Study population
The population of interest was the secondary schools and the community in Kinondoni district which include women and men of different ages. This consist 350 people in five different schools and one education officer at district level.




Table 3.2.2 Study Population
CATEGORY
POPULATION
PERCENTAGES
Boys (students)
201
40.28%
Girls (students)
242
48.50%
Education officers
1
0.2%
Head teachers
5
1.0%
Teachers
50
10.02%
Total
499
100%
SOURCE: Field Research Data (2009)
The population above also is divided into the following characteristics of different groups:

3.2.3 Sampling procedure
This research used the multi-stage sampling where the sampling process had to start by randomly selecting the schools, then each group was stratified into seven categories as distributed in table 3.2.2 above. A stratified sample was used because it is free from biasness, it takes into account significant strata levels of population considering important to the investigation.

3.2.4 Variables and measurement
Primary, Secondary data and documentary information was collected to accomplishing this research. In finding out to what extend do the SEDP have contributed to education in Tanzania the researcher accessed how the enrollment in secondary schools before and after SEDP, the ratio of teachers to students, availability of teaching and learning materials such as books (library), laboratory, number of pupils in one class, number of science teachers before and after SEDP, and equality in accessing education, that is the ratio between boys and girls in a class/school.


3.4 Methods of data collection
Two types of data were collected from the study; the primary data and secondary data. The methods used to collect each type of data are as described below:

3.4.1 Primary data
Primary data are referred to as the original data collected by the researcher herself for the purpose of inquiry. In this study data were collected through distribution of questionnaires designed.

3.4.2 Secondary data
Secondary data are second hand data. These are those data which have been collected by other persons and then passed through statistical mean at least once (Rwegoshora, 2006), The secondary data in this study was collected from other researchers through text books, reports and journals.

3.4.3 Methods of collecting Data
3.4.3.1 Interviews
Interviews were used in collecting data. The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral verbal responses. The interview method of collecting data were used because it helps the interviewer to get more information’s which would have been impossible to get them if another method was used.

Through interview views and ideas of other persons apart from ordinary community were gathered. The objectives of using this method were to collect information about unknown facts and get opportunity to observe things within the schools. The face to face interview was used to collect data from heads of schools and some parents.

The interviewer had a list of questions to ask the interviewee and the interviewee had to answer the questions. It was also used collect data from the educational officers.

3.4.4.2 Observation
This method gives the facilitator to observe things in the environment for further scrutinizing the real situation of the matter in question. Observation method was used to collect data from the field. Under observation method the information was collected by way of investigator own direct observation without asking from the respondent (Rwegoshora, 2006). During the assessment a simple observation was made in natural surroundings and the actions that are performed in their natural course without influence, controlled guidance from external agencies (Rwegoshora; p.134). This method was used when collecting primary data. It was used during interview meetings and focus group discussion which involved students in different schools. This method was used in investigating weather the environment is clean and conducive for the pupils to learn. It was also used to observe whether students in classes have chairs and tables.

3.4.4.3 Focus Group Discussion
Focus Group Discussion method was used to obtain in- depth information on concepts, perceptions and ideas of students. It involves organised discussion with a selected group of individuals to gain information about their views and experience of a selected thematic area. Rwegoshora defined focus group as a structured group process used to obtain detailed information about a particular issue. This method is used to collect general information about various issues existing in the community. A group of students involved in discussion, questions were imposed in order to make teachers, students and other stakeholders involved to the discussion of various issues arises in their schools.

3.4.4.4 Documentary Sources
This method is used during secondary data collection. Text books, village report files, and other investment profile report were used as a means to get information. This method help to get data concerning population, administrative setup of the district, different plans set by the council to improve the situation and theories in which the solution will be based on. The documentary sources can identify the opportunities they have which can be used to improve the student’s welfare and also the information provides a clear understanding of the schools in question.

3.4.4.5 Questionnaire
Questionnaire is a tool which uses a set of questions for collecting data. This tool refers as a device for securing answers to questions using a form which the respondent fills in. (Rwegoshora; 2006). This tool is useful for collecting information from respondent in the shortest possible time. This tool was used mostly in collecting various data from students and teachers with the intention to collect more information from respondent scattered in schools; and to collect reliable and dependable information because this tool is useful for collecting information from respondent in the shortest possible time. The questionnaires was designed and delivered to the respondents to fill them. The questionnaires covered most of the issues that are necessary and relevant for the study. The questionnaires were used mostly to collect data from teachers, pupils and other stakeholders.

3.5 Data analysis
The data were classified according to attributes and variables. Classification of data is the process of arranging things in groups or classes according to their resemblance or affinities. The process gives expression to the unity of attributes that may submit among the diversity of individuals. In other way classification is the process of arranging data in groups or classes according to resemblances and similarities.

After classifying the data into groups, the data was tabulated by arranging them in a logical order. Using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), the data were arranged in columns and law, and then the data was quantitatively analyzed using tables, graphs, pictograms, pie charts and measures of central tendency. Tabulation is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying the same in compact form for further analysis.

3.6 Expected results of the study
The expected results of this study can be helpful to other people become aware of the contribution of SEDP in education sector in Tanzania. It is also expected that after this study all the institutions concerns education will use these information’s to examine themselves whether they reached their target or achieved their objectives.

It is also expected that this study will attract more researchers in the area who will explore more issue that may improve the situation wherever found to be wrong.
It is also very possible that the results will influence the planners, policy makers to look again in the policies and plans and make some changes which will help the education sector to improve the service, by providing quality education, to provide adequate services and increase the possibility to all people to be able to equally have access to secondary education.













CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction
This chapter comprises five sections. The first section presents the characteristics of the respondents, the current state of secondary education is discussed in the second section, where the third section examines the mechanisms and the area of SEDP contribution. The significance and volume of SEDP contribution are drawn in section four and the challenges facing SEDP are registered in the last fifth section.

4.2 Characteristics of the respondents
Data was colleted from teachers, students, parents and education officers and the data was analyzed and found that 443 out of 500 respondents were students (88.6%) of which 201 were female and 242 were male, 50 out of 500 (10%) were teachers..

Table 4.2.1 Gender of the respondents
Occupation
SEX

Total
Male
Female
Students
201
242
443
Teachers
21
29
50
Heads of the schools
-
05
05
Education officers
02
-
02
Total
224
276
500
Source: Field research data 2009

The results show that 58% of the teachers were female. This implies that most of the teachers in Kinondoni district were women. The reason behind this is that many women are transferred to the district after getting married and thus they join their husbands.
Fourty eight percent of the students who responded to the questionnaires were girls where only 40.2% were boys. This indicates that the number of girls has increased because parents are now changing their attitude toward educating girls.

Table 4.2.2 Age of respondent
Occupation
Age

TOTAL
11-30
31-60
61-75
Students
444
-
-
444
Teachers
21
26
03
50
Heads of the schools
-
05
-
05
Education officers
-
02
-
02
Total
465
33
03
500
Source: Field research Data 2009
52% of the teachers responded are at the age of 31 to 60 years. Majority of the students (57.2%) are at the age of 15-20, 28.4% are at 10-15 and 3.2% are of the age of 21-25. Those who are at the age of 21 – 25 joined primary school lately as the government gave chance to those who did not get chances to go to primary schools a special programme in Kiswahili called MEMKWA.

Table 4.2.3 Head of schools qualifications
Heads of schools qualifications are among the areas where the studies were conducted.
SCHOOL
QUALIFICATIONS
Diploma
1st Degree
2nd Degree
PhD
Other Qualifications
Mtakuja
ü



- Diploma in Health education,
- doing 1st degree in ed. at OU
Twiga
ü



-Holder of International certificate Red cross, Advance Diploma in Management, and advance diploma in sports. She is doing her 1st degree in Ed. at OU
Kambangwa

ü



Kawe Ukwamani
ü




Bunju
ü



She is doing her 1st degree in Ed. at OU
Source: Field research Data 2009
The findings indicate that majority 80% of the heads of schools in Kinondoni Municipal council have diploma in Education. Only 20% of the heads have a degree in Education. The reason behind is that most of the head of schools were selected basing on experiences and not level of education though the data also show that almost 100% of those who have diploma are doing their first degree at the Open University.
.
Table 4.2.3 Teachers qualifications
SCHOOL
Year
TEACHERS QUALIFICATIONS
f.6
Lisences
Diploma
1st degree
2nd degree
PhD
Other qualifications
Mtakuja
2006
-
-
06
-
-
-
Majority are in study at different levels
2008
-
08
38
01
-
-
Twiga
2006
-
-
20
-
-
-
Majority are in study at different levels
2008
-
06
32
-
-
-
Kambangwa
1997
-
-
05
-
-
-
Majority are in study at different levels
2008
-
17
43
12
-
-
Kawe Ukwamani
2006
-
-
09
-
-
-
One is doing her master degree
2008
-
02
32
04
-
-
Bunju
2008
-
02
11
01
-
-

Source: Field research Data 2009

The data shows that the teachers are working hard to improve their skills and the government had put more effort in building capacity of the teachers. For instance there were only06 teachers at Mtakuja secondary schools when the school start: but in 2006 the number increased to 2008. In 2006 the shows that there was no single teacher with a degree at Mtakuja secondary schools, but in 2008 the data shows that there is one graduate and many are doing their first decree at the Open University.

Results of the study show that there is an increase in teacher’s numbers and qualifications, data collected from students show that there were no enough teachers in science subjects and business subjects as

20% of the teachers responded to the questionnaires teach language subject, 48% teach art subjects, 16% teach mathematics, 6% teach business subjects and only 10% teach science subjects. The results indicated that there is a shortage of teachers in Mathematics, science and business( book-keeping and commerce) subjects. The data indicates that only 6% are teaching commerce and bookkeeping, 16% are teaching mathematics and only 10% are teaching science.

Head of schools have been using different ways to solve this problem. Currently the problem of insufficient teachers is solved by hiring part time teachers (60%), or the few teachers available are convinced to carry the big load of the period though the efficiency might be reduced as human beings have the limit in working, teachers may become tired and reduce seriousness.

4.2.4 Form two results
Every student had to sit for form two national examination from which a student must pass to qualify for form three. Those students who failed the exam below the average of D had to repeat a year. Table 4.2.4 shows the results of the schools under study for two years




Table 4.2.4 Form two results
School
Year

PASS GRADES

A
81-100
B
61-80
C
41-60
D
30-40
F
0-29
Reg.
Abs
Bo
G
Bo
G
Bo
G
Bo
G
Bo
G
Mtakuja

2007
382
11
0
0
13
0
107
44
101
94
08
04
2008
497
05
0
0
03
04
51
25
144
95
54
116
Twiga

2007
121
0
0
0
01
06
13
24
45
23
05
04
2008












Kambangwa
2003
111
08
0
0
07
01
25
23
06
12
13
16
2007
384
14
01
0
35
12
100
85
36
96
01
04
Kawe Ukwamani
2007
329
05
0
0
9
01
74
68
68
81
8
17
2008
485
14
0
0
15
01

67

37
111

109

50

79

Source: Field research Data 2009

KEY: Reg, - registered
Abs - Absent
Bo - Boys
G - Girls

Form two National Examination results report 2007 and 2008 are not good as majority lie between C’s and D’s, only one student get A and majority also got F. Different reasons have been mentioned during discussion with the teachers as causes of failure. Among these reasons are:

Numbers of teachers were not proportional to the number of students. The required ratio for teacher to student is one teacher to forty five students, but the data shows that to some schools the ratio is up to 60 students per teacher.

Though there has been a good improvement in teachers’ qualifications, it is possible that teachers were concentrating more with their study and care less for the students. Parents were not very cooperative to teachers in different categories, but most of all in discipline matters. Parents were too busy to do their business and leave the whole responsibilities to the teachers. They were too busy so much so that they cannot even go to their children schools when they are called by the teachers for different matters.

In all schools findings shows that there were students who did not attend the examination for different reasons such as sickness, absenteeism, negligence and pregnancy. The students continuous assessment performance was among the areas that was assessed, and the result indicated that the average performance in students continuous assessment was good(B), though 36% of the respondents said the performance was average that is at ‘C’ grade. The table above shows that 34% of the respondents said that SEDP has improved Quantity, 60% said that equity in selection and joining secondary education has been increasing and 65 said they did not say anything.

4.3 Mechanism and area of SEDP contribution
The results of the study show that SEDP in Kinondoni Municipal as it is in the case at the National level SEDP in Kinondoni Municipal aims at achieving the SEDP objectives which include:
· widening access and equity in basic education through equitable distribution of institutions and resources;
· improve the quality of education through strengthened in-service teacher training, adequate teaching and learning materials, rehabilitation of physical facilities, consolidated pre-service teacher training, and strengthened monitoring and evaluation system;
· expand and improve girls’ education;
· provide facilities in disadvantaged areas;
· broaden the base for education financing through cost-sharing and establishment of education funds;
· decentralize management of institutions so as to devolve more powers of management and administration to regions, districts, communities and institutions;
· promote science and technology by intensifying technical and vocational education and training, rationalizing tertiary institutions;
· promote life-long learning through non-formal and distance education programmes;
· involve the private sector to expand provision of both formal and non-formal education and training.

Mechanism of SEDP contributions was (module operant) involvement of different stakeholders such as NGOs, wards, streets, and the community at large. With regard to the area of contribution, the study found out that SEDP has greatly contributed to different areas in the secondary education level ranging from increased enrollment, reduced dropout rate, improved facilities and infrastructure, and quality of education in terms of capacity initiatives and pass rates in the National Examinations. Results of the study show that total number of students increased from 1101 in 2006 and 5552 in 2009 after implementation of SEDP

4.3.1 Total Number of students
There has been an increase of the total number of studentssince 2006 to year 2009. For example in 2006 there was a total of 401students at Kambangwa Secondary school which increased to 1436 in 2009. At Twiga Secondary school there was 120 which increased to 1011
Table 4.3.1 Total Number of students

SCHOOL

YEAR
NO. OF STUDENTS
Boys
Girls
Total
Mtakuja
2006
257
144
401
2009
661
775
1436
Twiga
2006
61
59
120
2009
529
482
1011
Kambangwa

1997
30
42
72
2009
668
840
1508
Kawe Ukwamani
2006
175
195
370
2009
659
600
1259
Bunju
2008
80
58
138
2009
182
156
338
Total
2009
2699
2853
5552
Source: Field research data
The table 4.3.1 shows the total number of students in the schools where the study has been conducted. The findings reveals that there is an increase of student in each school in the beginning of the school and after two to three years. For example in 2006 at Twiga secondary school there was 120 students but in 2009 there are 1011 students. The increase is caused by the efforts done by the government through SEDP Programme to support secondary schools by constructing more classrooms and train more teachers with different qualifications.

The findings also indicate that there is an increase for number of girls as the data show that in some schools the number of girls are more than the number of boys. For example at Mtakuja Secondary school in 2009 there are 775 girls out of 1436 equal to 54% and 661 boys equal to 46% of the students. At Kambangwa secondary school in 2009 there are 840 girlsout of 1508 equal to 55.7%.



4.3.2 students enrolment
Since year 2004, The number of new constructed schools is increasing and so is the number of students enrolled in secondary schools to both boys and girls. Table 4.3.2 shows the number of students enrolled in the first year of the school and enrolment after two to three years.
Table 4.3.2 students enrolment
SCHOOL
YEAR
STUDENTS ENROLLMENT
Target
Actual
Excess
Less
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
Mtakuja
2006
300
300
600
257
144
401
-
-
-
43
156
199
2009
160
160
320
106
117
223
-
-
-
54
97
151
Twiga
2006
80
80
160
61
59
120
-
-
-
19
21
40
2009
54
50
104
58
51
109
-
-
05
-
-
-
Kambangwa
1997
40
45
95
30
42
72
-
-
-
10
03
13
2009
60
60
120
52
54
106
-
-
-
08
06
14
Kawe Ukwamani
2006
240
222
462
175
195
370
-
-
-
65
27
92
2009
128
130
258
124
124
248
-
-
-
04
06
10
Bunju
2008
80
80
160
80
58
138
-
-
-
-
22
22
2009
121
114
235
102
98
200
-
-
-
19
16
35
Source: Field research data 2009









The data shows that there is an increase in number of students enrolled in 2006 compared to those enrolled in 2009. Though there are many students who do not report especially those who had been selected in the second selection for different reasons, some of them being the parents who do not have faith with the government schools that they believe that there are no enough teachers to teach and some go beyond to saying that the teachers available are not well qualified to teach their children.

The second selected students did not got their results at the right time. When they got the results they have already joined other private schools and thus find it difficult to leave and go to another school where they had to start a fresh. Some of these students have already been sent to their villages to leave with their grand parents where some of the girls got married, some got pregnancy and others especially boys involved themselves in bad groups such as smoking marijuana or taking drugs. Students are being selected twice because most schools were new in Kinondoni municipality and thus they were still constructing more new classes and thus students had to wait till they finish constructing those classes, and some were selected to go and fill the chances which of those students who were selected and did not report.

Findings showed that there had been a decrease of students joining secondary schools in 2006 compared to those selected in 2009. The reason has been found out to be some heads of schools refused to accept more students because of shortage of training materials or facilities and to some schools the classes were not enough to occupy big number of students.

Another reason also could be the increase number of the secondary schools in Kinondoni municipal causing students selected to join the near school to their place they leave. 80% of the data show that selection has been considering gender equity because in all schools the number of girls and boys selected are equal though they differ in actual number.
4.3.4 Dropout rate
The finding show that there were few students who leave schools for different reasons. Different reasons or causes mentioned being causes of dropouts include pregnancy, absenteeism, dismissal for violating school rules and regulations, truancy and few left because they could not afford the expenses such as fare, school fees, books (stationeries) and uniforms. The dropout rate are as shown in table 4.3.4 below:

Table 4.3.4 Dropout rate
SCHOOL
YEAR
DROPOUT
Male
Female
Total
Mtakuja

2006
03
04
07
2008
02
06
08
Twiga

2006
-
-
-
2008
01
03
04
Kambangwa

1997
-
-
-
2008
03
02
05
Kawe Ukwamani
2006
-
-
-
2008
07
03
10
Bunju
2008
05
05
10
Source: Field research Data 2009

The findings show that the number of students who leave schools early was increasing at a decreasing rate. For example at Mtakuja secondary school there was seven out of 401 students equal to 1.7% who left school, while in 2008 there was eight students out of 1436 equal to 0.6%.

The findings also indicates that girls leave school early than boys for different reasons, among them pregnancy is the main cause.
The data also shows a high rate of absenteeism as the students proved it as shown in figure 4.3.4.1 below Students were asked if they sometimes miss classes, 47.4% said yes and their reasons include lack of fair, sickness, laziness – they do not feel like going to school, family problems such as attending funerals and sometimes they had been sent home for school fees.


65.6% of the students who were the respondents to this question they live with their parents, 21.6% said they live with relative because of different problems, and 8% live by themselves.






4.3.5 Improved facilities
In order to improve the quality of education different factors has to be considered. Among those factors are furniture’s so that the learning environment becomes conducive and supportive. Kinondoni distrct with the support of SEDP have been providing tables and chairs so that the students learning process becomes easy.

Table 4.3.5 Desks
SCHOOL
YEAR
Required
Available
Excess
Deficit
Ratio
Mtakuja

2006
401
320
-
81
1:2
2008
1041
700
-
341
1:2
Twiga

2006
160
160
-
-
1:1
2008
1011
910
-
101
1:2
Kambangwa

1997
350
72
-
278
1:3
2008
1000
800
-
200
1:2
Kawe Ukwamani

2006
360
160
-
200
1:1
2008
1259
954
-
305
1:2
Bunju

2008
160
240
80
-
1:1
2009
338
270
-
68
1:2
Source: Field research Data 2009

The findings shows that there has been an increase in the supply of furniture in all schools though all schools also show that there are deficit which is also among the reasons for schools to have double sessions. The number of chairs in use can be less than the number of the available number of chairs because it was observed that to some schools many desks and chairs are broken (out of use). This indicates that the suppliers and the procurers are not caring much about the quality and thus supply furniture’s with a very poor quality.

4.3.6 Classrooms
The findings show that at Bunju secondary there will be a need of new classes because more students will be enrolled in Form one and the other will need to go to other classes. Reasonable number of classes is 40. The required number of classes has been found by dividing the number of students in a school by 40.

Table 4.3.6 Classrooms
SCHOOL
YEAR
Required
Available
Excess
Deficit
Ratio
Mtakuja

2006
10
08
-
02
1:50
2008
36
30
-
06
1:48
Twiga

2006
04
02
-
02
1:61
2008
19
20
01
-
1:63
Kambangwa

1997
10
02
-
08
1:36
2008
20
13
-
07
1:80
Kawe Ukwamani
2006
09
06
-
03
1:40
2008
32
17
-
05
1:75
Source: Field research Data 2009

Although there is increase in number of classes in different years, the data show that there is a deficit of classes. This has been indicated in the data obtained from the heads of the schools. The data also show that majority of students in classes so much so that it becomes difficult to the teachers to control it.

According to the teachers responded to the questions the average number of students they teach in their classes is 41 – 60 students.

With all these efforts and the problems faced in constructing the classes it was also observed that some walls are showing some cracks and the floors are in very bad shapes because the ratio used in mixing cement with soil was not relevant or the one preferred. This implies that most of the builders are not serous with public facilities and the community funds. The contractors should build following the guidelines given by the Government on how to construct public buildings if not schools.



4.3.7 Pitlatrines
100% of the respondents show that there are deficit of pit latrines. The number of the holes needed for boys and girls increases from 2006 to year 2009, but it is shown in the data that in almost all schools there is a deficit of holes in 2009 which implies that when the number of students increases no new holes constructed to suit the number of students. The situation is not good for the students’ health as they may contaminate diseases such as urine transmitted infections (UTI) diseases and bilharzias (Stastomiasis). Required ratio of a hole to students for boys is 1:25 and for girls is 1:20, but data in the table 4.3.7 shows that to some schools the ratio goes up to1:167 for boys and 1:210 for girls.

Table 4.3.7 Pit latrines
SCHOOL
YEAR
Required
Available
Excess
Deficit
Ratio
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
B
G
Mtakuja

2006
10
07
06
06
-
-
04
01
1:43
1:24
2008
24
24
06
06
-
-
18
18
1:110
1:129
Twiga

2006
11
10
03
04
-
-
08
06
1:21
1:15
2008
22
25
03
04
-
-
19
21
1:177
1:127
Kambangwa
1997
02
03
04
04
02
01
-
-
1:20
1:20
2008
24
42
04
04
-
-
20
38
1:167
1:210
Kawe Ukwamani
2006
10
12
02
04
-
-
08
08
1:85
1:49
2008
27
30
08
10
-
-
10
20
1:28
1:20
Bunju

2008
04
03
04
06
-
03


1:46
1:26
Source: Field research Data 2009

4.3.8 Library
Eighty percent of the data show that all schools do not have libraries. One out of five (20%) of the respondents said that they have libraries but are not adequate. It was observed that even those which say they have libraries they are just using some of the classrooms and the books most of the books in those libraries are not useful in secondary schools students at the ordinary level.


Table 4.3.8 Library


SCHOOL


YEAR

Available


Not available
Adequate
Not adequate
Mtakuja

2006


ü
2008


ü
Twiga

2006


ü
2008

ü

Kambangwa

1997


ü
2008


ü
Kawe Ukwamani

2006


ü
2008


ü
Source: Field research Data 2009

4.3.9 Laboratory
100% of the data collected show that all schools do not have laboratory for science subjects. This is also proved by 80% of the students who said that they never did any practicals, and those who said they did, they did not do it at their schools.

From the 274 students who answered the question asking whether they done practical or not 107 who are in science classes and they said no that they never did a practical, where 91 and 22 students from arts and business classes respectively most of them never did practical (because all students take Biology which also need practical), the reason mentioned is that there is no laboratories in their schools.
Table 4.3.9 Laboratory
SCHOOL
YEAR
Available
Not available
Adequate
Not adequate

Mtakuja

2006


ü
2008


ü
Twiga

2006


ü
2008


ü
Kambangwa

1997


ü
2008


ü
Kawe Ukwamani

2006


ü
2008


ü
Bunju
2008


ü
Source: Field research Data 2009

This problem could be one of the main reasons why students do not do well in science subjects as it is believed that people learn more and easily by seeing and practicing. This is also a problem to the SEDP that it cannot realize or achieve some of its strategy because among them is to improve the performance in science subjects.
4.3.10 Computer rooms
One of the SEDP strategies is to improve science subject so that to make Tanzanian go with the changes in the world, knowledge of computer is important in these years either soft ware or hard ware but unfortunately only two schools among the studied schools have computers though are not adequate but they have.

Table 4.3.10 Computer rooms
SCHOOL
YEAR
Available
Not available
Adequate
Not adequate

Mtakuja

2006


ü
2008


ü
Twiga

2006


ü
2008

ü

Kambangwa

1997


ü
2008

ü

Kawe Ukwamani

2006


ü
2008


ü
Bunju
2008


ü
Source: Field research Data 2009

Only two out of five respondents (40%) of the data from table 4.3.10 shows that their schools have computer rooms though it was observed that in those schools there are few pieces of computer which cannot satisfy the need of the whole school. It was also observed that 50% of those said they have computers have computers which are very old. The sponsors or people who wants to donate computers should at least try to give computers which are good conditions and making the schools as a dumping place for the outdated computers.



4.3.11 Double sessions problems
Majority of the schools under study have double session where some students come to school in the morning and some come in the evening session, for example at Mtakuja secondary school form two and four come in the morning session where the form threes and form ones come in the afternoon session. Table 4.3.11 verifies this:

Table 4.3.11 Double sessions
SCHOOL
YES
NO
If yes why
Mtakuja
ü

Inadequate chairs and desks for students
Twiga

ü


Inadequate classrooms
Inadequate chairs and desks for students
Kambangwa
ü

Inadequate chairs and desks for students
Kawe Ukwamani

ü

Inadequate classrooms
Inadequate chairs and desks for students
Bunju

ü

Source: Field research Data 2009

All respondents (the heads of schools) showed that all schools have double sessions meaning the students are divided into two groups of which one attend in the morning (from7.00am to 12.30pm) while the other group attend in the evening (from 12.30pm to 6.30 pm). The reasons for having sessions indicated in the table 4.3.11.

4.3.12 Administration block
Offices are important just as classes and teaching and learning materials. It is in the office where teachers sit and prepare the lessons for the next period, mark students exercises and other activities. Not only teachers who need offices but also accountants, store keepers and secretaries. The table 4.3.12 below show the availability of administration block in the studied schools.

Table 4.3.12 Administration block

SCHOOL

YEAR
Available
Not available
adequate
Not adequate
Mtakuja

2006


ü
2008

ü

Twiga

2006


ü
2008


ü
Kambangwa

1997


ü
2008


ü
Kawe Ukwamani
2006


ü
2008


ü
Bunju
2008


ü
Source: Field research Data 2009

Four out of five (80%) of the respondent said that they do not have administration blocks, that is they don’t have a building for teachers and other workers offices, instead they divided one or two classrooms to offices such as academic teachers office, deputy or assistant to the heads office the head of the schools office and accountants offices. This could be among the reasons why teachers were not motivated to work hard as people are getting satisfaction using different type of motivations among which is good working condition that includes good arranged offices. The planners should put teachers in consideration when planning to build a school, teacher’s office or staff rooms as it is always called is important just as the pit-latrines and laboratory. If the offices are not there the teachers fill that they are not valued enough as they are important in the education sector and thus withdrawal their efforts (when people are not satisfied with their work they find other alternatives to satisfy themselves among which is withdraw their efforts or working against the goals or objectives set) and thus affects students performances.



4.3.13 Availability of furniture in teachers office
The government with all the programms put emphasis on building class rooms, but the government should also make sure that those offices are well furnished with the required furnitures such as chairs, tables and cabinets where teachers will put books, exercise books and papers. All respondents (100%) of the data shows that there no enough furnitures. Though the reasons given as cause of double sessions did not include this, but this to some extent can be among them. If the teachers are coming in double session and the furniture are not enough what if all come in the morning, it is obvious that many teachers will have no where to sit. (see tables 4.3.13 and 4.3.).

Table 4.3.13.1 Availability of furniture in teachers office
SCHOOL
No. of chairs
No. of tables
Access
Deficit
chairs
tables
chairs
tables
Mtakuja
35
30
-
-
12
17
Twiga
25
19
-
-
13
19
Kambangwa
35
30
-
-
43
48
Kawe Ukwamani
11
05
-
-
42
48
Bunju
0
0
-
-
14
14
Source: Field research data 2009

Data from table 4.3.13.1 shows that majority of the schools have deficit in teachers furniture; this means they are working in a very poor working environment which in turn some teachers become unsatisfied and demotivated as people have different level of satisfaction



4.3.14 Availability of teachers houses
Table 4.3.14 Teachers houses

SCHOOL

YEAR
Houses availability
available
Not available
Adequate
Not Adequate
MTAKUJA
2006


ü
2008


ü
TWIGA
2006



2008

ü

KAMBANGWA
1997


ü
2008

ü

KAWE UKWAMANI
2006


ü
2008


ü
BUNJU
2008


ü
Source: Field research data 2009

Data from table 4.3.14 shows that only two out of five schools (40%) have houses for teachers. All among these have only one house for the head of schools. It is very important to have teachers’ houses and if possible the houses must be near the schools compound. This have benefits towards the students because the teachers might be able to help students easily without thinking much on transport issues and others. The teacher also would had enough time to prepare themselves and share ideas with others.

Not only that , when teachers leave in their employers houses it would help them from the embarrassments they get from their landlords as teachers salary sometimes delay and make them pay rent not at the right time and thus cause a problem with their landlords.


CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction
This chapter provides conclusion of all works performed in this study and gives experienced elements as recommendation for others such as policy makers, and others who will be interested to do such or similar study or other development practioners in the faculty of education.

5.2 Summary of major findings
The data showed that
· The data show that 68% of teachers completed secondary education among them 22% completed university, this results indicated that there is a shortage of teachers in Mathematics, science and business( book-keeping and commerce) subjects. The data indicates that only 6% are teaching commerce and bookkeeping, 16% are teaching mathematics and only 10% are teaching science.

· The student’s performance was among the area which was assessed, and the result indicated that the average performance was good, though 36% of the respondents said the performance was average that is at ‘C’ grade. Further more, it was revealed that 34% of the respondents said that SEDP has improved Quantity, 60% said that equity in selection and joining secondary education has been increasing and 65 said they did not say anything,

· Since the introduction of SEDP there had been an increase of schools and so classrooms, all of these schools are day schools. Despite of the increasing in number, most of them faced with the challenges such as no enough teachers especially in Mathematics and science subjects. 40% of the respondents said they lack science teachers, 20% lack mathematics teachers where 40% said they have a deficit in all subjects. Because of the problem of teachers, and the difficulties to find them, different alternatives has been used to solve the problem, 60% do hire part time teachers, 40% convince the few teachers they have to more periods that means big load. In adequate toilets, the ratio of student to a hole is found to be too big in some of the schools. 60% of the respondent confirmed that the ratio is up to 100 students per hole, 20% said that in their schools up to 200 students per hole, and the other 20% up to 300 students per hole.

· Absence of libraries among the schools, most of them faced with the challenge of deficit of books which create a big gap to the students to learn effectively. Teachers also need to have different kind of books for references but the schools do not have them.

· Increasing drop out rate, 80% of the respondents said yes to the question that asked if there is any drop out in their schools. The reasons mentioned include poverty, negligence and lack of awareness, pregnancy and indiscipline cases, parents’ illiteracy: they do not know the importance of education and thus do not see any effect for their children to miss it. Total number of students enrolled from 2004 – 2009 in Kinondoni municipality is 36.863.000

· The data showed the opinion of the respondent on the quality of education provided in those schools as average, not high not low.

5.3 Conclusion
The study was conducted in Kinondoni district in Dar es salaam region where there are twenty nine government secondary schools many of them are built by community contributions and the government grants from which five (5) representative schools was selected using random sampling method.

The main goal, objectives of SEDP is to increase the proportion of Tanzania youths completing secondary education with acceptable learning outcomes. The Plan will concentrate in the following area: Improvement of Access, equity Improvement: Quality Improvement: Management Reforms and Devolution of Authority: and Education Management System Improvement.

The SEDP has contributed much in Education sector in Kinondoni district, as it has increased the number of students joins secondary schools from 963 students in 2006 to 5552 in 2009.

The data indicated that the municipal target to build secondary schools was 50 secondary schools in the period of five years, that is 2004 – 2009, but up to 2009 June they have already completed only 36 secondary schools equal to 76% of the target.

Though they have succeeded in having those schools still there are deficit in class rooms, students and teachers furniture and administration block (teachers offices).

5.4 Challenges
The main challenge facing SEDP is insufficient number of teachers especially in science and business subjects.

Laboratories for science practical and computer studies are another challenge for the project as improving science subjects one of their objectives. This means the objective can never be achieved if the laboratories are not there.

Teachers has to be trained (build their capacity) to improve their skills so that they become competent in their fields and thus provide quality education


5.5 Recommendations
Tanzania need to change their attitude towards government or community funds, when they are given counteracts to build schools for examples, they should build schools for examples, they should build it using the required standards. For those schools which have contribute to have

Libraries these are not libraries they are classrooms which have bean divided into partition to have libraries and offices etc.

Orphans, poor families cannot pay fees; the governments have to find other way to help them.

The government promised to pay 50% of the fee to all students in public schools but it is not paying the account at the night time which makes the school needs and teachers work at a very hard and tight budget, which causes in efficient as the teachers refuse to work in some extra work like supervising some exams, attending some.

Plan and the Government budget should consider much in improving the teaching and learning situation, improving the teaching and learning materials and also improving teachers salaries and other benefits.

It seems that SEDP consideration is more concerned about the students; classes, chairs and tables for student no studies will continue, this means when considering the serious consideration for teachers furniture’s; how can a teacher be satisfied with office with no chair or a table while the student s have the furniture.

When building a school they must build an officer for teachers and not when teachers came they use one of the classes, this is embarrassment.

Laboratories are very important for science subjects especially physics, chemistry and Biology. So simultaneously with the classes and teachers office; the laboratories must be constructed.

Involvement of teachers or the stakeholders of the SEDP project was not efficient. Some of the teachers and heads of the schools did not know exactly what SEDP is. This indicates that the teachers are the implementers and it seems that they are not involved in decision making and thus they have a feeling that the project or plan do not concern them, but it belongs to other leaders in ward or district levels or the project was imposed by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training as one of the heads of the schools quoted ‘ I do not know and do not want to hear about it because it makes things more difficult to us leaders, they promised to provide some amount to cover some areas they do not provide and if they do not at the right amount and right time , which makes teachers and parents think that we head of schools misusing the funds’’.

The government should have a contractual agreement to be signed which may improve the teachers attendance as it was also noted from heads of departments that there is a problem in teachers attendance.

The results shows that most of the students do not choose science for different reasons, being one of the main criteria in the SEDP plan, something has to be done to make the students change their attitudes toward science. The table above shows that only 29.4% 0f the respondents choose science, 38.8% choose arts subjects and 9.85 choose bookkeeping and commerce. More efforts are neded to build laboratory and train more science teachers so that it can attract more students to join science departments,

Other non teaching staffs has to be employed as early as the school starts. These include secretaries, accountants and security guards, this will give heads of the schools and their assistants ample time to concentrate on administration issues and not becoming secretaries or accountants.



























REFFERENCES
Frida Mwenegoha, cultural affaires assistant and educational advisor PAS

Joseph J. Mungai (MP), (5 March, 2004) Minister for education and culture Dar es salaam

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Appendix 1
QUESTIONNAIRES

HEAD TEACHERS (GUIDE)
Secondary Development program (SEDP) is a plan launched in 2004 follows the Primary Development program (PEDP). SEDP is an essential sequeal to PEDP, without which the transition from primary to public secondary schools would drop dramatically (SEDP). SEDP emphasizes on the expansion to access to secondary education.

SEDP outlines the framework for achieving greater access to secondary education while simultaneously tackling equity, retention, quality and management issues. It also addresses the government policies on decentralization of the management of delivery social services including education.

SEDP is a visionary plan with projection of up to 2010 when we should achieve 50% primary secondary transition rate that may translate into having over 500,000 pupils joining Form 1 annually which will be five times the rate in 2003. The increase will dramatically change the outlook of secondary education in the country with forms 1 – 6 enrolment in secondary schools reaching 2000,000 by 2010 compared to 345,000 in 2003.

These are questionnaires which aim to assess the contribution of SEDP in Tanzania particularly in Kinondoni district.

The researcher is a student at the Mzumbe University doing her Master Degree in Business Administration. The completion of this research questions will help to get the data which will be used to improve the education sector, and also help the reseacher to be able to graduate for the degree.

1. Identity number ( )

2. Gender?
(i) Male
(ii) Female

3. Age?
(i) 21 – 35
(ii) 36 – 50
(iii) 51 – 65

4. Education?
(i) Primary
(ii) Secondary
(iii) University
(iv) Vocational training
(v) Adult education
(vi) No Formal Education

5. Marital status?
(i) Married
(ii) Widow
(iii) Single
(iv) Divorced

6. When does this school start? ……………………………………………………………

7. How many students your school have? ………………………………………………….

8. What type of school is this
Co – education (both boys and girls)
Non Co – education (only single sex)

9. If the answer to question 8 is ‘a’, How many
a. Boys……………
b. Girls …………..

10. How many classes do you have? ………………………………………………………

11. Do you know or are you familiar with SEDP?
Yes
No

12. Have you ever attended any seminar concerning SEDP?
Yes
No

13. How many classes are built after the introduction of SEDP……….

14. What kind of school is your school?
(a) Boarding
(b) Day
(c) Hostel

15. Do you have enough teachers?
(a) Yes
(b) No

16. If the answer to question 15 is b), which subject teachers are not enough
(a) Science teachers
(b) Art teachers
(c) Mathematics teachers
(d) Language teachers

17. Is it easy to those kind of teachers you selected in question 16 above
(a) Yes
(b) No

18. What do you do to solve the problem of teachers for those subjects which have no teachers?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

19. What is your opinion on the quality of education after the introduction of SEDP? ……………………………………………………………………………………….......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

20. Do you have a library at your school?
(a) Yes
(b) No

21. If the answer is Yes to the question above, Does the library contain all books needed
by teachers and pupils?
(a) Yes
(b) No

22. Which books do you lack?
(a) English books
(b) Kiswahili books
(c) Mathematics books
(d) Science books
(e) Arts books
(f) Book keeping and Commerce
(g) Civics

23. Where do you get money to buy books? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
24. What is your opinion concerning books …………………………………………………………………………………………............................................................................................................................

25. Do you have a laboratory for science practice?
(a) Yes
(b) No

26. If the answer to question 25 is yes; do you have all the things needed in the Lab?
(a) Yes
(b) No

27. If the answer to question 25 is No, do you have any plans to get one?
(a) Yes
(b) No

28. If the answer is Yes to questions 27 where will you get the funds?
........................................................................................................................
……………………………………………………………………………..
29. Do you have a computer Laboratory?
(a) Yes
(b) No

30. How is the attendance of teachers in classes?
(a) Satisfactory
(b) Not satisfactory

31. What do you think of classrooms?
(a) Satisfactory
(b) Not-satisfactory

32. Do you think you need more classrooms?
(a) Yes
(b) No

33. What is an average number of students in one classroom?
(a) 21-30
(b) 31-40
(c) 41-50
(d) 51-60
(e) 61-70
(f) 71-80

34. Where do you get the Desks and chairs?
(a) Municipal
(b) Parents contributions
(c) The government


35. Do all students get a desk and chair?
(i) Yes
(ii) No

36. What is the condition of the classrooms?
(a) They are nicer than before SEDP
(b) Classrooms are the same as before
(c) Worse than before
(d) The government

37. Do you have toilets?
(a) Yes
(b) No

38. What is the ration of a hole to students?
(a) 11-100 per hole
(b) 101-200 per hole
(c) 201-300 per hole
(d) 301-400 per hole
(e) 401-500 per hole

39. What is your opinion of the contribution of the SEDP to Education in Tanzania?
(1) ………………………………………………………………………………………
(2) ………………………………………………………………………………………
(3) ………………………………………………………………………………………
(4) ………………………………………………………………………………………

40. Is there any drop out in your school?
(i) Yes
(ii) No

41. If the answer to the question above is yes, what could be the reason for drop out …………………………………………………………………………………………............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

42. What problems do you encounter when doing your job 1)…………………………………………………………………………………………............................................................................................................................
2)....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
3)....................................................................................................................................






Appendix 2: QUESTIONNAIRES
TEACHERS
Secondary Development program (SEDP) is a plan launched in 2004 follows the Primary Development program (PEDP). SEDP is an essential sequeal to PEDP, without which the transition from primary to public secondary schools would drop dramatically (SEDP). SEDP emphasizes on the expansion to access to secondary education.

SEDP outlines the framework for achieving greater access to secondary education while simultaneously tackling equity, retention, quality and management issues. It also addresses the government policies on decentralization of the management of delivery social services including education.

SEDP is a visionary plan with projection of up to 2010 when we should achieve 50% primary secondary transition rate that may translate into having over 500,000 pupils joining Form 1 annually which will be five times the rate in 2003. The increase will dramatically change the outlook of secondary education in the country with forms 1 – 6 enrolment in secondary schools reaching 2000,000 by 2010 compared to 345,000 in 2003.

These are questionnaires which aim to assess the contribution of SEDP in Tanzania particularly in Kinondoni district.

The researcher is a student at the Mzumbe University doing her Master Degree in Business Administration. The completion of this research questions will help to get the data which will be used to improve the education sector, and also help the researcher to be able to graduate for the degree.

1. Identity number ( )

2. Gender?
(i) Male
(ii) Female

3. Age?
(i) 10 – 30
(ii) 31 – 60
(iii) 61 – 75

4. Education?
(i) Primary
(ii) Secondary
(iii) University
(iv)Vocational training
(v) Adult education
(vi) No Formal Education

5. Marital status?
(i) Married
(ii) Widow
(iii) Single
(iv) Divorced

6. What is your professional level?
(a) Certificate in Education
(b) Diploma in Education
(c) Degree in Education
(d) Licenced teacher
(e) form six
(f) Others
7. Which subjects do you teach?
(a) Language subjects
(b) Arts subjects
(c) Mathematics
(d) Book keeping and Commerce
(e) Science (Biology, Physics and Chemistry)


8. How is the pupil’s attendance in your subject (period)
(a) Very good
(b) Good
(c) Average
(d) Poor

9. Do you know what is SEDP?
(a) Yes
(b) No

10. Have you attended any seminar?
(a) Yes
(b) No

11. How is the students’ performance in your subject?
(a) Excellent (average of As)
(b) Good (average of Bs)
(c) Average (average of Cs)
(d) Bad/poor (average of Ds and Fs)

12. Do you think SEDP has done anything to improve Education in Tanzania?
(a) Yes
(b) No

13. If your answer to question 12 is yes, say how ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………….

14. If your answer to question 12 is no, say how
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

15. How many students you teach in one class?
(a) 21-40
(b) 41-60
(c) 61-80
(d) More than 80

16. Do you think you can help the students well in the class?
(a) Yes
(b) No

17. If the answer to question 16 is no, say why ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

18. How many times do you give exercise in a week?
(a) Once a week
(b) Twice a week
(c) After each period
(d) Once a month

19. Do you mark the exercises?
(a) Yes
(b) No

20. If the answer is no; why
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………….

21. What is the students’ average performance in your subject?
(a) Excellent
(b) Good
(c) Average
(d) Bad

22. Does the Government care much about the teachers improving their skills?
(a) Yes
(b) No

23. Have you attended any more studies or training or seminars to improve your Education and level of teaching?
(a) Yes
(b) No

24. If the answer to the questions above is yes what level?
(a) Diploma level
(b) Degree level
(c) Others

25. Do you have teaching materials (reference books etc?)
(a) Satisfactory
(b) Are not satisfactory

26. Are you satisfied with what you achieve from your work?
(a) Yes
(b) No


27. If the answer to question 27 is No, say why ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
28. What are your suggestions about SEDP
………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………………………………………….








Appendix3
QUESTIONNAIRE NO.2 FOR THE HEADS OF SCHOOLS

1. When does this school start?..........................

2. What is the total number of student in your school?........................................ in which number of boys is …….and number of girls is ………………….


3. Does the school constructed teachers office/administration block
(a) Yes
(b) No

4. If you have the office, does it have enough furniture…………………………….

5. How many tables………………………. and how many chairs ?..............


6. Do you have session in your school?
(a) Yes
(b) No

7. If the answer is yes how do you do it ? (Who come in morning and who comes in the afternoon?)

8. Head of school qualifications?
(a) Diploma
(b) 1st degree
(c) 2nd degree
(d) PhD
(e) other qualifications

9. If you have other qualifications mention them
…………………………………………………
…………………………………………………..
HEAD OF SCHOOLS QUALIFICATION
SCHOOL
QUALIFICATIONS
Diploma
1st Degree
2nd Degree
PhD
Other Qualifications
MTAKUJA










TWIGA










KAMBANGWA










KAWE UKWAMANI










BUNJU












10. NUMBER OF TEACHERS
SCHOOL
YEAR
TEACHERS
Required
Available
Access
Less
MTAKUJA
2006




2008




TWIGA
2006




2008




KAMBANGWA
1997




2008




KAWE UKWAMANI
2006




2008










BUNJU
2008




2008












11. TEACHERS QUALIFICATIONS
SCHOOL
YEAR
TEACHERS QUALIFICATIONS
F.6
LISENCES
DIPLOMA
1ST DEGREE
2ND DEGREE
PhD
Other Qualifications
MTAKUJA
2006







2009







TWIGA
2006







2009







KAMBANGWA
1997







2009







KAWE UKWAMANI
2006







2008







BUNJU














12. STUDENTS ENROLLMENT
SCHOOL
YEAR
STUDENTS ENROLLMENT
Target
Actual
Excess
Less
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
Boys
Girls
Total
MTAKUJA


























TWIGA


























KAMBANGWA


























KAWE UKWAMANI


























BUNJU






































13. FORM TWO RESULTS
SCHOOL
YEAR
PASS GRADES
A
B
C
D
F
MTAKUJA












TWIGA












KAMBANGWA












KAWE












BUNJU














14. DROP OUT
SCHOOL
YEAR
DROPOUT
MALE
FEMALE
TOTAL














































What are the reasons for drop out…………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………


15. FACILITIES
15.1 DESKS

SCHOOL
YEAR
Required
Available
Excess
Deficit
MTAKUJA










TWIGA










KAMBANGWA










KAWE UKWAMANI










BUNJU












15.2 CLASSROOMS
SCHOOL
YEAR
Required
Available
Excess
Deficit
MTAKUJA










TWIGA










KAMBANGWA










KAWE UKWAMANI










BUNJU












15.3 PITLATRINES
SCHOOL
YEAR
Required
Available
Excess
Deficit
MTAKUJA










TWIGA










KAMBANGWA










KAWE UKWAMANI










BUNJU














15.4 LIBRARY
SCHOOL
YEAR
Available
Not available
Adequate
Not adequate

MTAKUJA








TWIGA








KAMBANGWA








KAWE UKWAMANI








BUNJU










Real situation


15.5 LABORATORY
SCHOOL
YEAR
Available
Not available
Adequate
Not adequate

MTAKUJA








TWIGA








KAMBANGWA








KAWE UKWAMANI








BUNJU











15.6 COMPUTER ROOMS

SCHOOL
YEAR
Available
Not available
Adequate
Not adequate

MTAKUJA








TWIGA








KAMBANGWA








KAWE UKWAMANI








BUNJU












15.7 RATIOS
SCHOOL
RATIO
Desk-students ratio
Class-students ratio
Pit latrines hole-students ratio
Computer-students ratio
Teachers-students ratio
MTAKUJA










TWIGA










KAMBANGWA










KAWE UKWAMANI










BUNJU























Appendix 4: Introduction letter

Appendix 5
Letter of acceptance from Kinondoni Municipal




Appendix 6
Letter of acceptance from The Ministry of Education and Vocational training
Appendix 7: Schools in Kinondoni Municipal constructed between 1994 and 2008



Appendix 8: WORK PLAN
work plan Gantt chart Show the Work Plan of the Research Activities
ACTIVITY
DECEMBER
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MEI

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Proposal and Presentation
























Preparing questionnaire
























Distributing Questionnaire
























Data Collection
























Data Processing
























Data analysis and Presentation
























Interpreting Findings
























Report Writing
























Binding and Submission































Appendix 9: RESEARCH BUDGET
Actual budget for the research
STATIONARIES
COST
5 Reams of Paper @6000
30,000
1 Box of Pencil@ 1000
1,200
30 pens@ 300
9,000
2 files@ 1,500
3,000
2 Calculator @ 20,000
40,000
1 Punching Machines @2500
2,500
1 staple machines @ 2500
2,500
3 Boxes of staple pins @1000
3,000
2 Rulers@ 500
1,000
Sub Total
92,200
FIELD ACTIVITIES

Proposal preparation
50,000
Meal allowance 5,000 per day x 28days
140,000
Transport and during data collection(5,000x 28days)
280,000
Research Assistance meal and transport(5,000 x 28days)
280,000
Printing and photocopy for Questionnaires (900 x 50)
2 45,000
Other expenses
150.000
Sub Total
1,425,000
DATA ANALYSIS AND REPORT WRITING

Transport 60,000
60,000
Typing, Printing and Binding (3 copies)
250,000
Sub Total
570,000
Grand Total
1,887,200

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